From John Armitage, 
The History of Brazil 
(London, 1836), pp. 84-88.


"I am not a rebel," wrote Don Pedro to the King, "as the enemies of your Majesty will doubtless aver to you: The fault rest solely with circumstances." . . .

The final declaration of entire independence and separation from Portugal, was in the meantime hastened by the despatches transmitted to Don Pedro by his Royal father,... which had the instantaneous effect of inducing him to declare the entire independence, in such a decided and explicit manner, as to render all retrograde measures utterly impracticable.

It was on the 7th of September, 1822, on the margin of the Ypiranga, a small stream near the city of San Paulo, that he thus finally complied with what had long been the warmest wish of every enlightened Brazilian, and from this day the independence of the country has since held its official date. It was in the eyes of all the civilized world a memorable circumstance, and must ever form an epoch in the history of the trans-atlantic world.  It was one of those great events regarding which men look rather to the result, than to the means which have led to its accomplishment. A son of the Kings of Europe had espoused the cause of American independence, and the universal enthusiasm in his favour knew no bounds.