The Anthony P. Campanella Collection of Giuseppe Garibaldi

Introduction | Island 1 | Island 2 | Island 3 | Island 4 | Island 5 | Island 6

Island 6: Retrospection:
Autobiographies, Biographies, and Commemorations

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
The Life of General Garibaldi, Translated from his Private Papers .... by Theodore Dwight
New York: A.S. Barnes and Burr, 1859.

The memoirs of Garibaldi have a curious history, appearing in his lifetime with four separate but related texts in four different languages (see entry on the text of the Dumas version--next item). This earliest version, edited and translated into English from Garibaldi's manuscript by Theodore Dwight (1796-1866), was first published in New York in 1859.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Mémoires de Garibaldi, traduits sur le manuscrit original par Alexandre Dumas
Paris: Michel Lévy Fréres, 1860.

Garibaldi's memoirs present complex textual problems. Four basic texts exist: that first published at New York in 1859 in English translation by Theodore Dwight; the German edition of Garibaldi's mistress Elpis Melena, which substantially collates with Dwight's version; Garibaldi's own version, first published in 1872; and the edition prepared by Alexandre Dumas, published in French in 1860. The Dumas text contains detailed descriptions of events not found in other versions, and leading authorities, notably G.M. Trevelyan, have dismissed them as inventions, though opinion still varies on this point. Garibaldi first came to the attention of Dumas during the 1847 defence of Montevideo; the famous novelist later did much to advance his reputation.

Famiglia Garibaldi
Milano: G. Cozzi, [ca. 1880].

Lithograph of Garibaldi, his third wife Francesca Armosina, and his six children.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Autobiography of Giuseppe Garibaldi
London: Walter Smith & Innes, 1889. Three volumes.

This copy of Werner's translation of Garibaldi'sAutobiography was owned by the great British historian George Macaulay Trevelyan (1876-1962), a leading biographer of Garibaldi and historian of the Risorgimento. Trevelyan was a major influence in inspiring Dr. Campanella to his studies of the Italian liberator. This set of books, which contains numerous annotations in Trevelyan's hand, was the gift of Trevelyan to Dr. Campanella.


Alabaster portrait bust of Garibaldi
Late nineteenth century.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Garibaldi's Memoirs from his Manuscript, Personal Notes, and Authentic Sources Assembled and Published by Elpis Melena
Edited with an introduction and annotations by Anthony P. Campanella
Sarasota, Florida: International institute of Garibaldian Studies, 1981.

A number of important contributions to the study of Garibaldi have been prepared and published under the auspices of the International Institute of Garibaldian Studies. The Anglo-German writer Elpis Melena (1818-1899), admirer and sometime mistress of Garibaldi, edited and published in German translation the fourth and final version of Garibaldi's memoirs in 1861. The text is of great significance, both as Garibaldi's last, most complete draft and for the extent to which Melena's closeness to the great man is reflected in her editing and annotations. Dr. Campanella's 1981 edition is the first publication of this important text in English.

W. B. Brooke
Out with Garibaldi [Campaigns and Exploits of Garibaldi]
London: Ward & Lock, 1861.

The popularity and hero-worship of Garibaldi in the nineteenth-century English-speaking world is reflected in the inexpensive but attractively packaged popular biographies published at that time. The Campanella Collection contains a number of examples, among them W. B. Brooke's Out with Garibaldi (cover title Campaigns and Exploits of Garibaldi), a Ward & Lock yellowback of 1861, published in the wake of the Sicilian expedition.

Howard Blackett
Life of Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian Hero and Patriot
London; Preston: Walter Leigh, 1882.

Blackett's elaborately illustrated tribute was among the most expensively produced English-language biographies of Garibaldi. The finely executed, romantic chromolithographs are splendid exemplars of the late nineteenth-century vision of the heroic liberator.

Jessie White Mario, 1832-1906
Garibaldi e i suoi tempi
Milano: Fratelli Treves, 1884.

Mario's biography was among the most lavishly illustrated biographies published after Garibaldi's death. Shown here is a dramatic rendition of the first meeting of Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1882), the great Italian republican theorist and leader. The meeting supposedly took place in the autumn of 1833, though controversy exists as to whether it actually occurred. However, both Mazzini and Garibaldi acknowledged the meeting, and the author of this book, an Englishwoman married to an Italian revolutionary, was a friend of both men.

Gabriele D'Annunzio, 1863-1938
Ode alla nazione Serba ["Hinc spes"]
Venezia: a spese dell'autore, 1915.

This copy of Ode alla nazione Serba ("Ode to the Serb Nation"), written at the time of the Austrian/German invasion of Serbia during the Great War, is inscribed by D'Annunzio, with typical panache, to Garibaldi's grandson and namesake Peppino. It is one of the numerous books in the Campanella Collection that comes from the libraries of Garibaldi and his son Ricciotti.

Comemorative numismatica

The Italian art historian Annie-Paule Quinsac writes of the Garibaldian medals in the Campanella Collection that: "In its completeness, the collection is an extremely rare example of the overall corpus of the numismatic production connected with the cult of Giuseppe Garibaldi.... The coins, medals and decorations range from 1849 to the 1960's. They are made of gold, silver, plated metal, pewter, copper and other alloys (there is even an example of dry lava). Only a few are not in mint condition. They range from relatively common (about 150) to rare (about 180) to extremely rare (circa 50)." Dr. Quinsac also observes that the Campanella collection contains more than 50% of the holdings of the world's largest collection, that of the Risorgimento Museum, Milan. She observes that this is "an extraordinary result for any private collection. There are to my knowledge no other comparable collections in the US."

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