In April 1848, Garibaldi returned to Europe with 60 members of his Italian legion. The offer of his services was declined by Pope Pius IX and by Charles Albert of Savoy, and instead, until the collapse of the revolutionary movement in Northern Italy, he fought ably for the city of Milan, which, influenced by Mazzini, had adopted a distinct, republican orientation. Following Pius IX's flight from Rome, Garibaldi and his volunteers offered their services to the Roman Republic. His doomed but inspired defence of Rome (April-June 1849) and his retreat to San Marino and escape from central Italy, during the course of which his wife died in circumstances both deeply tragic and deeply heroic, established him as a legend of emerging European liberal nationalism. Garibaldi was now the "hero of two worlds." The Piedmontese government was unwilling to allow so potent a symbol of revolution to return home, and Garibaldi remained in exile, in Tangier, Staten Island, and Peru until 1854 when Cavour, the Piedmontese prime minister, allowed his return with the purposes of separating him from Mazzini and the republican faction and of using his prestige and talents to further unification of Italy under the auspices of the Piedmontese monarchy.
In 1844, the brothers Attilio and Emilio Bandiera and a group of companions landed at Cotrone, in Calabria, in an attempt to trigger a spontaneous uprising within the kingdom of Naples (also known as the kingdom of the Two Sicilies). When the hoped-for rebellion failed to materialize, they were captured and shot together with seven of their companions. Their death, singing the chorus "He who dies for his country has lived long enough," placed them in the first rank of the martyrs of Italian unity. The incident strongly affected Garibaldi, who in 1860 was spectacularly to make good what they had attempted. Garibaldi named his second son Ricciotti in honour of one of the young martyrs (the Campanella Collection contains many items from Ricciotti Garibaldi's library). Ironically a possible factor in the failure of the expedition was the indiscretion of Giuseppe Mazzini, compiler of this account, who, believing that there was no postal censorship in Britain, mailed details of the plot to another Italian revolutionary in London. The letter was intercepted by the British government and it was believed (apparently incorrectly) that its contents were forwarded to the Neapolitan and Austrian governments.
The Campanella Collection includes issues 130-195 of the rare satirical journal Il Don Pirlone, issued in Rome under the Roman Republic. Many of the lithographic cartoons are anti-clerical in nature, but this example represents the Roman Republic, Roman wolf at her side, heralding the dawn of Italian unity by ringing a bell in the shape of a cap of liberty. Pope Pius IX and Charles Albert of Savoy, whose son Victor Emmanuel II was to be king of a united Italy, are among those discomfited by the bell's sound. The Campanella Collection also contains a copy of the 1850, three-volume second edition of Il Don Pirlone formerly in the library of Count Potocki.
In February 1849, Garibaldi, who had led a group of volunteers to Rome, was elected a deputy of the Roman Assembly. In this capacity he proposed the establishment of the Roman Republic. Between April and July he led a spirited defense against French and Neapolitan troops sent to restore papal authority. Though the resources at Garibaldi's disposal doomed his defense to failure, the vigor of his resistance ensured a place for the event among the principal legends of the Risorgimento and established Garibaldi as one of its greatest leaders.
The liberal politician Luigi-Carlo Farini, author of this work, served in the 1848 administration of Pope Pius IX, but resigned following the establishment of the Roman Republic. Subsequently, the increasingly reactionary nature of the restored papal government led him to transfer his allegiance to the House of Savoy, where he became a strong supporter of Cavour's policies. From 1861 to 1863, following the death of Cavour, he served as prime minister of united Italy.
A recruiting poster issued during the 1848-49 Austro-Sardinian War.
Collection of resolutions passed by various municipalities in support of the Roman Republic, then being invaded by the French, April & May, 1849.
During the late spring and early summer of 1849, British readers kept abreast of the goings-on in Italy through weekly periodicals, most notably the Illustrated London News. Shown here on a "sub-island" are several engravings pertaining to the events taking place around Rome during that time.
The Campanella Collection contains an important group of broadsides issued in the town of Macerata. This bulletin details events of the 1848-49 war between Austria and Piedmont/Sardinia including details of skirmishes at San Benedetto del Tronto and of a prisoner exchange at Rome.
Angelo de Masini, also known as Masina, was an Emilian nobleman who commanded a corps of lancers formed for the defence of the Roman republic. The corps, composed principally of aristocrats, was called the "Death Squadron." This important letter, exhorting Masini's men to fight bravely, was written ten days after Masini's men abandoned him during a battle with the Neapolitans, an incident from which the Emilian barely escaped with his life. Masini was killed five days later during a sortie, made against Garibaldi's expressed orders, in which he attempted to retake the Villa Corsini from the attacking French army. Masini's body, recovered a month later, was found to contain seventy bullet wounds.
Denis Auguste Marie Raffet is counted among the great nineteenth-century book illustrators. His two major late works, Souvenirs d'Italie and Voyage dans la Russie Méridionale (also in the University of South Carolina's collections) were regarded by many contemporary admirers as the highest achievements of the lithographic book.Souvenirs d'Italie depicts scenes from actions of the French expeditionary force despatched by Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, later Napoléon III, to suppress the Roman Republic and reinstate the government of Pius IX. Garibaldi's command of the beleaguered Republic's forces established him as a major figure in the coming fight for Italian unity. Raffet's Souvenirsis an exceedingly rare work.
Bassi (1800-1849) was a popular preacher, operating principally from the city of Bologna. A strong adherent of the 1848 revolution, he initially supported Pius IX, transferring his allegiance to the Roman republic and to Garibaldi when the pope's opposition to Liberalism became evident. On the fall of the republic, Bassi accompanied Garibaldi to San Marino: unlike Garibaldi, however, he was captured and handed to the Austrians. Falsely charged with bearing arms, he was executed at Bologna on August 8, 1849. Bassi, among the most attractive of the nineteenth-century Italian patriots, is described by the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica as "a gentle, unselfish soul, who, although unusually gifted, had an almost childlike nature." The account concludes: "His execution excited a feeling of horror all over Italy."
Giuseppe La Farina was among the first advocates of Italian unity under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy. He played a prominent role in the 1848 revolution in Sicily and subsequently settled in Turin, where in 1856 he founded Piccolo corriere d'Italia, which propagated the views of Societa Nazionale Italiana, of which he became president. La Farina acted as an intermediary between Cavour and Garibaldi and joined Garibaldi at Palermo in 1860 to speed the process of Italian unity. He was a member of the first Italian parliament (1860).
Stefanoni's two-volume radical history of the 1848 establishment of the Roman and French republics and of the overthrow by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte of the two republics. The wood engravings on the wrappers of the two volumes show, respectively, the Roman wolf and Gallic cock under the republican Phrigian cap, and Napoleon III, flanked by imperial flags and surmounted by a crown.
In this letter Garibaldi announces to Vecchi (1813-1869), his long-time friend and biographer, his intended return to Italy from the four-year exile which followed the overthrow of the Roman republic. Although addressed from Baltimore, the letter, which is franked with English stamps, was not mailed until Garibaldi had reached England on February 11, 1854. After a three month stay in England, Garibaldi landed at Genoa on May 7.
Garibaldi's 1870 novel Cantoni il volontariois the account of Cantoni, a fictional figure who joins the author's volunteers in Rome in 1848. In contrast to his earlier novel,Clelia, Garibaldi intersperses descriptions of actual events through the text and introduces real characters, including his first wife, Anita, and himself.