Belon, Aldrovandi, & Jonstonus
Nieremberg & Willoughby
Catesby's Natural History of SC
Edwards & Pennant
Illustration processes
Wilson's American Ornitology
Audubon's Birds of America
Audubon & Bachman
Selby, Swainson, & Gould
De Kay & Cassin
Selected References

Audubon and Others


The Rev. John Bachman of Charleston
Engraving, from Davy-Jo Stribling Ridge, A Load of Gratitude: Audubon and South Carolina, Columbia, SC: Thomas Cooper Library, 1985.
--Audubon first visited South Carolina, on his way to Florida, in 1831. Among the friends he made in Charleston was John Bachman (1790-1874), a Lutheran minister and enthusiastic naturalist. Increasingly, Audubon drew on Bachman's knowledge and his help in obtaining specimens. Bachman's sister-in-law Maria Martin, a gifted artist, assisted Audubon with the botanical background to a number of paintings, and two of Audubon's sons married Bachman daughters.

Bachman and Natural History
Bachman, C. L.
John Bachman, the pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church, Charleston.
Charleston, S.C.: Walker, Evans & Cogswell, 1888. 

Original green cloth.
--As the pages shown here indicate, the life of Bachman by his son Christian lays special emphasis on his friendship with Audubon, drawing heavily on the two men's letters. Bachman here testifies to his earlier acquaintance in Philadelphia with Alexander Wilson and to the impact Audubon's visit made on him. Just a few weeks later, Bachman would travel to Columbia, to help lobby the legislature to appropriate money for purchase of Audubon's Birds of America.

A Manuscript Lecture by John Bachman
Bachman, John, 1790-1874.
An essay on the migration of the birds of North American: read before the Literary and Philosophical Society March 15th 1833.
Holograph manuscript, in ink, with many corrections, emendations and insertions on separate leaves, Charleston, [1833?], 28 pp. Gift of James P. Barrow.
--Bachman's friendship with Audubon stimulated his own scientific interests, as evidenced by this wide-ranging lecture given to a Charleston audience the year after Audubon's visit. The text of the manuscript varies substantially from that of the published version subsequently published in Benjamin Silliman's American journal of science and arts, 30 (July, 1836): 81-100. Some of Bachman's research was shared with Audubon and included in his Ornithological biography.

Audubon and Bachman's Quadrupeds
Audubon, John James, 1785-1851, and Bachman, John, 1790-1874,
The quadrupeds of North America.
3 vols. New York: V. G. Audubon, 1851-54. Later black morocco. John Shaw Billings Collection.
--Bachman collaborated with Audubon on a second great natural history project, a series of plates illustrating North American quadrupeds. This was first published in folio in three volumes, The vivaparous quadrupeds of North America(New York : Audubon, 1846-53), and then republished in this handier octavo. The library's copy of the folio edition was presented by Governor J.H.Adams, one of the original subscribers.

Audubon at the time of the Quadrupeds
John Woodhouse Audubon,
John James Audubon
Oil, 1843, from Ella M. Foshay, John James Audubon (New York: Abrams, 1997).
--In 1843, Audubon had undertaken a seven-month expedition into Missouri, hoping to collect materials for the Quadrupeds series. He returned with a full white beard, and his son immediately painted this portrait, showing the aging frontiersman still untamed.

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