Belon, Aldrovandi, & Jonstonus
Nieremberg & Willoughby
Catesby's Natural History of SC
Edwards & Pennant
Illustration processes
Wilson's American Ornitology
Audubon's Birds of America
Audubon & Bachman
Selby, Swainson, & Gould
De Kay & Cassin
Selected References

Audubon and Others


The Process of Illustration, I: An Uncolored Copperplate Engraving
Hayes, William, fl. 1794.
A natural history of British birds, &c. With their portraits accurately drawn, and beautifully colored from nature, by Mr. Hayes.
London: Printed for S. Hooper, 1775. Quarter calf, boards.
--Hayes aimed where possible to draw his birds life size, as Audubon would do. At least some of Hayes's bird illustrations were drawn by other members of his large family. Hayes also produced a series Portraits of Rare and Curious Birds (2 vols., 1794-1799). Hayes is not highly regarded by scholars of ornithology books, but the uncolored plates in this copy show the process used in producing such better-respected works as Catesby's and Audubon's; each page was first separately printed from the inked engraved copperplate with the outline and shading, which was then individually hand-colored, often by women workers.

The Process of Illustration, II: Thomas Bewick and Wood Engraving
Bewick, Thomas, 1753-1828.
"The Jay," in A history of British birds. The figures engraved on wood by T. Bewick.
Newcastle: Edward Walker, for T. Bewick; and Longman and Rees, London, 1805. Tree calf.
--Unlike the early woodcut illustrations, the copperplate engravings used by Catesby, and later by Wilson and Audubon, could not be integrated into the text. An alternative technique for book illustration, wood engraving done on the end grain of hard boxwood, was developed by a provincial English illustrator, Thomas Bewick of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Bewick's technique was especially successful in depicting the smaller British birds in a natural habitat.

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