Oral History Transcripts

Alphabetical List 

 
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H   I   J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

Please note: The year(s) listed with each name is(are) the interview dates. All transcripts on this list are open for research.


A

Ashmore, Robert T. (1989)

Interview Transcript
Interviewed just prior to his eighty-fifth birthday, former U.S. Congressman Robert T. Ashmore (1904-1989) reflects on his life, achievements, and values. Ashmore represented South Carolina's 4th District in the United States House of Representatives between 1953 and 1969

[Note: This interview was conducted by his great-nephew, Greenville Middle School eighth-grader Robbie Eskew, for a school history project.] 

Go to Ashmore Collection page


B

Beasley, Gov. and Mrs. David, and Nancy Bunch (2000)

Interview Transcript (26 pages)
Former Governor and Mrs. Beasley discuss their lives in the South Carolina Governor’s Mansion from 1995 to 1999.  Also present, Nancy Bunch of the Governor’s staff.

Blatt, Solomon (1986)

The Bridge Builder: Solomon Blatt Reflects on a Lifetime of Service to South Carolina:
This remarkable book, now available via Digital Collections, is a collection of oral histories conducted with Speaker Blatt and published by McKissick Museum of the University of South Carolina in a limited edition. Blatt forged a remarkable career of service. He served as a doughboy in the trenches overseas during World War I, practiced law in Barnwell, and provided sound leadership to South Carolina as a member and long-time Speaker of the South Carolina House of Representatives (1937-1946 and 1951-1973).  He also mentored many legislators who became important leaders in their own right.

Go to Blatt Collection page

Boineau, Charles E., Jr. (1995)

Interview Transcript:
Charles E. Boineau served in the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1961-1962. He was the first Republican elected to the House since Reconstruction, and his election heralded the emergence of a viable and active Republican Party in the state. This 1995 interview begins with Boineau's personal history, the formation of his political ideology, and his experiences at The Citadel. Boineau recounts how he and others worked to promote a Republican Party presence in the 1960s and how his 1961 special election to the House paved the way for the emergence of the modern state Party. His description of the events that surrounded his election include personal anecdotes involving figures such as Strom Thurmond, Ernest "Fritz" Hollings, Floyd Spence, Joe Berry, Olin Johnston, Drake Edens, and Bill Workman. Boineau also describes his admiration for national Republican figures such as Barry Goldwater, and he goes into great detail about the S.C. Democratic Party's enforcement of the "loyalty oath" and the "full-slate law."

Go to Boineau Collection page

Brack, Andy (1992)

Interview Transcript (41 pages) Andrew Clayborne Brack served as campaign spokesman during Fritz Hollings' 1992 campaign for reelection to the United States Senate. In that race, Hollings was opposed by Republican and former United States Congressman Tommy Hartnett. Hollings' seat had been targeted by the Republican Party as vulnerable and, indeed, the race proved to be one of the closest in Hollings' history. He won reelection with 50.07% of the vote. In the interview, Brack talks at length about the campaign and his role as spokesman, and his assessment of the Hartnett campaign.
 

C

Campbell, Mrs. Carroll A., and son Mike (2000)

Interview Transcript (27 pages)
Mrs. Iris Campbell, wife of former governor Carroll Campbell, and their son Mike, discuss life in the Mansion from 1987 to 1995.

Go to Campbell Collection Page

Chadwick, Thomas W. (1995)

Interview Transcript:
Thomas W. Chadwick (b.1923) served U.S. Senator Olin D. Johnston as Press Secretary, Legislative Assistant, and Campaign Manager between 1955 and the Senator’s death in 1965.  In this interview, he reflects upon his education at the U.S.C. School of Journalism, his years as a reporter for The State, work as a Senate staffer, and roles in the presidential campaigns of Adlai Stevenson, 1952 and 1956, John F. Kennedy, 1960, Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1964, and Hubert Humphrey, 1968. 

Also in this interview, Chadwick describes the leadership which Johnston provided in the office, his concern for the common man and liberal economic stance, and the campaigns in which Chadwick figured.  He also discusses  the roles played in the office by other key staff members such as Robert L. Alexander, Hyram W. “Bill” Brawley, Andrew M. Faucette (1895-1961), and Baxter Funderburke, as well as Johnston’s brother William C. Johnston and the Senator’s wife, Gladys, and talks of close associates Senator Frank Carlson (R-KS), J.C. Long, Robert Hemphill, and others.

Chapman, Robert (2002)

Leader in the Republican Party of South Carolina.

Cook, Crawford (1997)

Interview Transcript. Crawford Cook, political consultant, talks of his life and entry into politics as campaign manager for Marshall Parker’s 1962 bid for Lieutenant Governor, his work in Fritz Hollings’ successful 1966 race for the U.S. Senate, and his role as Hollings’ first Administrative Assistant, 1966-1968.

Cook, W. A. “Al” (2001)
 

Interview Transcript:
W. A. “Al” Cook (1925-c. 2005) was former Legislative Assistant to S.C. Second-District Congressman John J. Riley and chief of staff to his successors, Albert Watson and Floyd Spence.  He served on the Hill from March 1953 to his retirement from federal service in 1985.  In this 2001 interview, he reflects on his career and the members under whom he served.

 

Cooksey, Jesse L. (2001)

Leader in the Republican Parties of S.C. and Spartanburg County.

Copps, Michael (1996)

Interview Transcript (33 pages) The interview focuses on Dr. Michael Copps' role on the staff of Senator Ernest F. Hollings, 1970 to 1985, as a special research assistant, executive assistant, and eventually Administrative Assistant. Copps reflects on Hollings' work habits and character, provides astute descriptions of the inner workings of the Hollings Office, and comments on Hollings' impact on the debate over the SALT treaties, the Carter administration's passage of the Panama Canal treaties, and Hollings' 1984 Presidential campaign and decision to shift from the Budget Committee to Commerce.


D

Dennis, Rembert C. (1989, 1990)

Rembert Dennis (D-Berkeley County) served more than forty years in the S.C. House and Senate between 1939 and 1988.

Go to Dennis Collection page

Transcript 1:
This 1975 interview emphasizes Dennis' public policy views, the impact of the 1974 elections and Charles "Pug" Ravenel's gubernatorial campaign, and his views of legislative service. He describes his strong support for state assumption of primary and secondary school funding and elaborates on how he would provide that funding. He also discusses why the Senate seniority system traditionally has been misinterpreted and predicts that new rule changes in the system will encourage participation by more of the body's younger members.

Transcript 2:
This interview was held over a series of twenty dates from 1989 to 1990. The 218-page transcript is divided into chapters in which Dennis describes his family history, formative years, personal life, and public career. He speaks about his relationships with S.C. politicians and his views about the state political scene, and how events such as the Vietnam War, the civil rights movement, and Watergate influenced his beliefs. An enthusiastic hunter and outdoorsman, Dennis discusses his passion for these activities and his interest in wildlife-focused legislation. A large portion of the interview is devoted to exploring his long legislative career; his campaigns, which were often uncontested; the work he completed for Berkeley County; his involvement as Chair of the Finance Committee; his personal interests; recognition and awards; and his reluctant decision to retire in 1988 following a series of health-related problems. Dennis briefly discusses his law career, which lasted nearly as long as his political career, and his opinions about integration and race relations.

Dorn, Watson and Steve Griffith (2006)

Interview Transcript:
The primary focus of this 2006 interview is the 1950 campaign by William Jennings Bryan Dorn to be returned to Congress. Watson Dorn, Bryan Dorn's youngest brother, and cousin Steve Griffith, helped Dorn defeat incumbent James B. Hare and win election to regain the seat he had first won in 1946. In 1948, rather than seek reelection to the House, Dorn had unsuccessfully challenged Burnet Maybank for the U.S. Senate.

Go to W.J.B. Dorn Collection page

Dorn, William Jennings Bryan (1993)

Interview Transcript:
Former Congressman William Jennings Bryan Dorn reflects on his tenure in Congress, particularly as regards foreign policy and the menace of communism. Joseph McCarthy and Harry S Truman are mentioned.

Go to the W.J.B. Dorn Collection page

Dorn, William Jennings Bryan (no date)

Interview Transcript: (33 pages)
In this interview with Joe Wider, the Hon. William Jennings Bryan Dorn discusses his career in Congress.  This transcript is undated (transcribed in 1993) and lightly edited.

Go to the W.J.B. Dorn Collection page


E

Edens, Martha (2000)

Interview Transcript: 
Martha Edens has been a well-known Republican figure in the state since the 1950s. She has served as National Committeewoman for South Carolina and as Chair of the Richland County Republican Party. Her brother, J. Drake Edens, Jr. served as state Party chairman from 1963-1965.
In this 2000 interview, Ms. Edens talks about her leadership roles in her sorority and community organizations. She explains how she became involved in politics and the Republican Party because she inherited her father's ideology and observed the activities of her brother, who has been credited with creating the structure of the state Party. She describes the resurgent Party's early days and its members, many of whom would become heavily involved in S.C. politics. Ms. Edens comments on state Republican figures including Charles Boineau, Gayle Averyt, Bill Workman, and Carroll Campbell. She shares a particular fondness for Congressman Floyd Spence and Senator Strom Thurmond, as well as her admiration for current notables Congressman Joe Wilson and Governor Mark Sanford. She describes numerous campaign operations and many of the Republican National Conventions she attended, including those in 1972 and 1996. Ms. Edens discusses her brother's commitment to the Party, as well as why she feels the Republican Party is welcoming to women, the obstacles she has faced as a woman involved in politics, and her thoughts on women's political involvement.

Go to J.D. Edens, Jr. Collection page

Edwards, Governor James B., Mrs. Ann Edwards, and children James B. Edwards, Jr., and Katherine Edwards Wingate (1999)

Interview Transcript (21 pages )
The Edwards family reflect on their years in the Governor’s Mansion from 1975 to 1979.

         


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Graydon, Gus (2000)

Interview Transcript (29 pages)
Gus Graydon discusses the Governor's Mansion book project, the role of the Governor’s Mansion Commission in acquiring Mansion furnishings, and the evolution of the Mansion complex property.  Interviewed by Dean of USC Libraries George Terry and former S.C. First Lady Ann Edwards.


H

Hamby, Lottie D. "Dolly" (1999)

Interview Transcript:
Ms. Hamby (1918-2001) reflects on her life and career as a partner in the public relations firm of Bradley, Graham and Hamby, of Columbia.  In addition to traditional business clients, the firm managed a remarkable series of chiefly successful political campaigns in the 1950s and 1960s, including those of George Bell Timmerman for governor, 1954; Ernest F. Hollings for governor, 1958, Charles Boineau for the S.C. House, 1961; William Workman for the U.S. Senate, 1962, Donald Russell for governor, 1962, and Robert McNair for governor, 1966, as well as the mini-bottle initiative.

Go to Hamby Collection page 


 

Harper, Walter W. (1997)

Interview Transcript (36 pages) Walter W. Harper was hired by Gov. Fritz Hollings in 1959 as Director of the South Carolina Development Board. Harper had been engaged in development work in North Carolina under its governor, Luther Hodges. Hollings had campaigned promising to devote himself to improving the economic climate of South Carolina. Soon after taking office, Hollings expanded the Board's membership from five to fifteen and brought Harper in to plan, organize, and help lead an energetic development effort aimed at expanding current manufacturing enterprises, bringing new industry to South Carolina, and promoting tourism. Here, Harper reflects on his leadership of the Development Board, 1959-1967. [Note: The transcript has been heavily edited by Mr. Harper to ensure the fullest and most accurate account possible.]

 

Harrelson, James P. "Preacher" (1999)

Interview Transcript
James P. "Preacher" Harrelson (1919-2003) of Colleton County was a Walterboro pastor and attorney who served in the South Carolina House, 1957-1960, and Senate, 1963-1976. In this interview, Harrelson reflects on his experiences in the General Assembly, the nature of that legislative body, and key legislation with which he was associated.

Hodges, Governor James H., and Mrs. Rachel Hodges (2000)

Interview Transcript (20 pages)
Gov. and Mrs. Hodges reflect on their years, 1999 to date, as Governor and First Lady.

Hollings, Ernest F. (1980)

Interview Transcript (22 pages)
Senator Ernest “Fritz” Hollings discusses the integration of Clemson University, 1962-1963.  Hollings was governor of South Carolina at the time.




Hughes, Mary Winton (1993)
 
Interview Transcript(41 pages) Hughes reflects on her career as a Senate staff member in the office of Fritz Hollings.
 

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Kollmansperger, Karen (1993)
 
Interview Transcript (29 pages) Kollmansperger reflects on her experiences in Washington, D.C., chiefly while working on the staff of Senator Ernest F. Hollings.


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M

Martin, John A. (1999)

Interview Transcript (35 pages)
Former South Carolina State Senator John A. Martin (b.1921) of Winnsboro chiefly reflects upon his career in public service as a member of the House, 1951-1952, and Senate, 1953-1960 and 1965-1993.

Maupin, Joe (1999)

Interview Transcript (40 pages) Maupin was U.S. Senator Ernest F. Hollings' Charleston Area Director. In this interview he reflects on his service directing the Low Country operations of the office, beginning in 1978.

McNair, Governor Robert E., and Mrs. Josephine McNair (2000)

Interview Transcript (20 pages)
Former Governor and Mrs. McNair discuss life in the Governor’s Mansion from 1966 to 1971.

Go to Robert E. McNair Collection Page

 

McNair, Robert E. (1982)

This multi-part interview is one of a series in an oral history project which grew out of former Governor McNair's concern that his official gubernatorial papers would not adequately document the tragic confrontation at Orangeburg on February 8, 1968, and the desire of a group of his associates to more thoroughly document his administration. The South Carolina Department of Archives and History administered the project, and these interviews were conducted by Dr. Cole Blease Graham of the University of South Carolina. The SCDAH has graciously allowed SCPC to mount the McNair interview on its website. For a full description of this project, please see the introduction to Transcript #1.

Interview Transcript 1 Interview Transcript 11 Interview Transcript 21
Interview Transcript 2 Interview Transcript 12 Interview Transcript 22
Interview Transcript 3 Interview Transcript 13 Interview Transcript 23
Interview Transcript 4 Interview Transcript 14 Interview Transcript 24
Interview Transcript 5 Interview Transcript 15 Interview Transcript 25
Interview Transcript 6 Interview Transcript 16 Interview Transcript 26
Interview Transcript 7 Interview Transcript 17 Interview Transcript 27
Interview Transcript 8 Interview Transcript 18 Interview Transcript 28
Interview Transcript 9 Interview Transcript 19 Interview Transcript 29
Interview Transcript 10 Interview Transcript 20

Go to McNair Collection page

Meng, Bernard B. "Bubba" (1992)

Interview Transcript (21 pages) Bernard B. "Bubba" Meng (b. 1938) graduated from USC and initially became involved in South Carolina politics through his friendship with fellow student Liz Johnston, daughter of US Senator Olin D. Johnston. Meng worked for Johnston in Washington in the early 1960s, later joined "Fritz" Hollings' 1966 Senate campaign staff, and stayed on with Hollings as his Home Secretary until his retirement in 1989.
 

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Parker, Marshall (2002)

Interview Transcript:
In this 2002 interview, Marshall Parker reflects on his life, particularly his public service as S.C. state senator from Oconee County, 1956 to 1966, and campaigns for the U.S. Senate, 1966 and 1968. Parker was educated at the University of North Carolina and served with the Marines in the Pacific during World War II. He moved to Seneca in 1947 and founded and operated Oconee Dairies from 1950 to 1981. In 1966, Parker joined the Republican Party and ran for the U. S. Senate. He polled 212,000 votes, a remarkable vote in a state that had only in 1961 elected its first Republican state legislator since Reconstruction. Democrat Ernest F. "Fritz" Hollings was elected to fill the remainder of the term of deceased Senator Olin Johnston with 223,000 votes. Parker tried to build on his success in the 1968 campaign for a full six-year term, but lost 248,000 votes to Hollings' 404,000.

Payne, Martha (1995)

Interview Transcript (23 pages) Mrs. Payne worked for Ernest F. Hollings first while he served as Governor of South Carolina and rejoined his staff shortly after his election to the U.S. Senate. Her work in the Senator's Columbia office chiefly entailed constituent service work. Mrs. Payne retired in 1995.

Perry, Matthew J., Jr. (1995-1996)

Interview Transcript (184 pages)
Columbia native Judge Matthew Perry (1921-2011) discusses his life, legal career (including the Orangeburg Massacre), and involvement in the Civil Rights movement in South Carolina.  Perry became one of the key NAACP attorneys promoting civil rights in South Carolina.

Pope, Thomas Harrington, Jr. (1995)

Interview Transcript:
In this 1995 interview, Thomas H. Pope discusses his education at The Citadel and University of South Carolina School of Law in the 1930s. He also comments on political campaigns and his service in the South Carolina House of Representatives, 1937-1940, and 1946-1950, and as Chairman of the state Democratic Party, 1958-1960.

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Riley , Ann “Tunky” Yarborough (1987)

Interview Transcript
In this interview, conducted by Jack Bass, Mrs. Riley discusses life with her husband, South Carolina Governor and U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley, and her role in his gubernatorial campaigns.  She also details her activities as First Lady, particularly her promotion of citizen participation in educational reform and the revitalization of the mansion complex and creation of the Governor’s Green garden.

Riley, Edward P. "Ted" (1986-1987, 1989-1991)

Interview Transcript
Ted Riley, an assistant United States attorney (1933-1952), was also known for his long-time involvement with the Democratic Party. He chaired the Greenville County Democratic Party Executive Committee, 1954-1955, and the South Carolina Democratic Party for two terms, 1960-1964. In this extensive interview, recorded over a period of six years from 1986-1991, Riley reflects on many aspects of his involvement in South Carolina politics.

An attorney for the Greenville County School Board, he discusses his involvement with the school integration lawsuits and his respect for fellow attorney, the Honorable Matthew Perry.

Riley established relationships with many South Carolina politicians active in the 1950s, such as James Byrnes, Sol Blatt, Edgar Brown, and Strom Thurmond. He shares anecdotes about their personal, professional, and political careers. He also discusses his role in the 1960 John F. Kennedy presidential campaign in South Carolina.

Riley was the father of former governor Richard W. "Dick" Riley and retired from the U.S. attorney's office to work on his son's gubernatorial campaign. He discusses in detail Dick's youth, political foundation in the state Senate, campaign for Governor, his time in office, and his accomplishments.

Riley also explains how South Carolina politics changed over the thirty years of his involvement and offers his opinion on recent elections. He also spends some time in the beginning and in the end of the interview detailing his personal background and the history of the Riley family.

Go to E.P. Riley Collection page

Riley, Governor Richard W., Mrs. Ann “Tunky” Riley, and son Ted Riley (2000)

Interview Transcript (20 pages)
The Rileys reflect on their years in the Governor’s Mansion from 1979-1987.

 

Ross, Daniel I. Jr. (2001)

Interview Transcript:
In this 2001 interview, Daniel I. Ross, Jr. reflects on his life and particularly his activity in the Republican Party in South Carolina. A Blackville area native, Ross was educated at the University of South Carolina and the University of Texas, maintains the family farm, and is retired from the E.I. DuPont Company, where he was employed as a staff engineer chiefly responsible for environmental monitoring. Ross became active in the Party in the early 1950s, served as County Chair, State Executive Committeeman, 2nd District Chair, managed Jim Henderson's 1970 bid for Lieutenant Governor, Deputy State Chairman of the Nixon Presidential Campaign, District Campaign Chair for Strom Thurmond's 1972 reelection campaign, Chaired James B. Edwards 1974 gubernatorial primary campaign and co-chaired Edwards' successful general election campaign, and played a leading role in George Bush's 1988 and 1992 presidential campaigns. He served as Party chairman from 1976 to 1980. As chair, he vigorously expanded the Party's base outside its strongholds in the upstate and Lexington County and worked to win offices at lower levels of government as well as targeting statewide and Congressional offices.

Russell, Donald S. (1992)

Interview Transcript
Governor of South Carolina, 1963-1965; and U.S. Senator, 1965-1966. Russell discusses his political career and the integration of Clemson University.  

Go to Russell Collection page


S

Saleeby, Edward E. (1999)

Interview Transcript:
Hartsville native Ed Saleeby (1927-2002) reflects on his life and distinguished career
in public service.  Saleeby received his LL.B. degree from the University of South
Carolina in 1949, served in the South Carolina House of Representatives, 1951 to 1959,
and on the USC Board of Trustees, 1961 to 1972.  In 1972, he defeated powerful
incumbent state senator “Spot” Mozingo in a hotly contested race.  He served in the Senate from 1972 to 2002.

Scott, Sallie (1995)

Transcript (45 pages)
Mrs. Scott, the elder daughter of Olin D. and Gladys Atkinson Johnston, recounts her recollections of life in the Governor’s Mansion and in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C., her father’s political campaigns, and her mother’s active role in Johnston’s campaigns and career in government.

Go to Olin D. Johnston page

Shorey, Gregory D. (2001)

Interview Transcript (76 pages)
Mr. Shorey reflects on his long association with the Republican Party, including his tenure as chair of the South Carolina party and his involvement in the presidential campaigns of Barry Goldwater. Mr. Shorey remains active in politics as an Election Commissioner, he also founded the Party Heritage Committee, working to help document the early history of the Republican Party in South Carolina.

Go to Shorey Collection page

Smith, Frances (2004)

Interview Transcript
Miss Frances Smith recalls her decades-long career as Clerk of the South Carolina Supreme Court.
 

Spence, Floyd D. (1978)

Interview Transcript
In this interview conducted for the show, "University Forum," the Honorable Floyd D. Spence discusses various topics including taxes and inflation, cuts in appropriations, special interest rating groups, and the media's role in the 1978 campaign.
 

Spence, Floyd D. (1992)

Interview Transcript
U.S. Congressman, South Carolina's 2nd District; South Carolina House of Representatives (Lexington County), 1957-1962, and 1966-1970.

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Waddell, James M. (1999)

Interview Transcript (22 pages)
Former state senator James Madison Waddell, Jr. (1922-2003) of Beaufort, South Carolina, reflects on state government, his service in the General Assembly as a member of the House, 1955-1958, and Senate, 1961-1993, and involvement in the campaigns of Fritz Hollings, 1960 and 1966, and John West in 1970.

Go to Waddell Collection page 
 

Walker, Harry (1999)
Interview Transcript:
Harry Walker (1929-2008) served as Governor Fritz Hollings' legal assistant from 1959-1963.  He was responsible for all legal matters that reached the Governor's office, advised Hollings on the constitutionality of bills sent for the governor's signature, oversaw statewide appointments and those requiring Senate confirmation, and served as disaster coordinator for South Carolina and as liaison with all law enforcement.  This latter capacity proved particularly challenging, as Walker worked closely with SLED chief Pete Strom to ensure the peace during this watershed period of civil rights activities .

West, Governor John C., Mrs. Lois West, and daughter Shelton West Bosley (2000)

Interview Transcript (16 pages)
The Wests reminisce about their years in the Governor’s Mansion from 1971-1975.

Go to John C. West Collection page

West, John Carl (1996-1997)

Interview Transcript:
John C. West served as a member of the South Carolina Senate, 1955-1966; as Lieutenant Governor, 1967-1971; as Governor, 1971-1975; and as United States Ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 1977-1981.

In this interview (taped on four dates in 1996 and 1997) West discusses his childhood in rural Kershaw County, his education at The Citadel, his military career, his law school education and legal career, and his career in public service. Among the topics he covers are his thoughts on aspects of the state's development since World War II; his assessment of Fritz Hollings' gubernatorial term as a "watershed" in the style of state politics; his experiences with race relations and the civil rights movement; and details of various political campaigns.

He discusses the importance of William Workman's 1962 U.S. Senate campaign to the rise of the Republican Party in the state. He also describes his involvement with the 1960 John F. Kennedy presidential campaign in S.C. Some of his achievements during his career, including the creation of a second medical school in S.C., are detailed here, as well as his duties as Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. His career was not without disappointments, however, and West shares some of the frustrations he faced.

Go to West Collection page

West, Lois (1998)

Interview Transcript:
Mrs. West describes her life as wife of the honorable John C. West, particularly as First Lady of South Carolina, 1971-1975, and life in Saudi Arabia as the ambassador's wife, 1977-1981.

Go to West Collection page

Williams, Marshall (1995)

Interview Transcript (34 pages) The Honorable Marshall B. Williams discusses his family history, his high school football career, his military service, his legal education and career, his colleagues in both the legislative and judicial branches of state government, some of his experiences in the South Carolina House and Senate, his role in the Orangeburg racial unrest during the 1960s, the various governors and lieutenant governors under whom he served, his style of leadership and other approaches to public service, and the changes in state government he witnessed during his political career.

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