The biographical profiles are drawn from a range of secondary sources, such as Dumas Malone’s The Public Life of Thomas Cooper (1979), Lester Stephens’s Joseph LeConte: Gentle Prophet of Evolution (1982), James Oscar Farmer’s The Metaphysical Controversy: James Thornwell and the Synthesis of Southern Values (1986), and Deborah Kuhn McGregor’s Sexual Surgery and the Origins of Gynecology: J. Marion Sims (1990). Others were from earlier eras, like Sergeant Perry’s The Life and Letters of Francis Lieber (1884) and James Petigru Carson’s Life, Letters, and Speeches of James Louis Petigru (1920). Dissertations and theses written by University of South Carolina graduates were quite helpful, particularly Kenneth Platte’s The Religious, Educational, and Political Aspects of the Thomas Cooper Controversy (1967) and Marty Matthews’s Charles Pinckney: A Forgotten Founder (2002). General works consulted include Daniel Hollis’s The University of South Carolina (1951), Biographical Directory of the South Carolina House of Representatives (1981), and Walter Edgar’s The South Carolina Encyclopedia (2006). For Stephen Elliott and Henry William DeSaussure, we consulted the files of the South Caroliniana Library.