Branen, Jeff and Frederick G. Johnson. How to stage a Minstrel Show: A Manual for the Burnt Cork Director. Chicago: T.S. Denison & Company, 1921.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh, ed. Beyond Blackface: African Americans and the Creation of American Popular Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.
Chilton, John. A Jazz Nursery: The Story of the Jenkins’ Orphanage Bands of Charleston, South Carolina.
London: Bloomsbury Book Shop, 1980.
Daise, Ronald. Reminiscences of Sea Island Heritage: Legacy of Freedmen on St. Helena Island. Orangeburg, S.C.: Sandlapper, 1986.
Graham, Sandra Jean. “Spiritual.” Grove Music Online. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/A2225625 (accessed November 30, 2015).
Gullah: A Legacy in Song: An Audio Documentary. CD. Zillow Productions, 2000.
Jenkins Orphanage (Charleston, S.C.). Answers to Inquirers of the Jenkins Orphanage Institute and Its Many Branches. [Charleston, S.C.]: [Jenkins Orphanage], 1926.
Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Marsh, J. B. T. The Story of the Jubilee Singers with their Songs. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1880.
Orphan Aid Society (Charleston, S.C.), and Daniel J. Jenkins. Constitution, by-Laws and Report of the Orphan Aid Society. Charleston, S.C.: Edward Perry, 1894.
Orphan Aid Society (Charleston, S.C.). God Dealing with Rev. D.J. Jenkins, the Orphanage Man. [Charleston, S.C.]: [Jenkins Orphanage], 1913.
Records, 1909 Nov. 14-1927 June 6. South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina.
Rice, Marianne. Music Education through Gullah: The Legacy of a Forgotten Genre. United States: Xlibris, 2009.
Shearon, Stephen, Harry Eskew, James C. Downey, and Robert Darden. “Gospel Music.” http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/A2224388 (accessed November 30, 2015).
SC Department of Parks Recreation and Tourism. “Gullah Traditions of the South Carolina Coast.” http://discoversouthcarolina.com/articles/gullah-traditions-of-the-south-carolina-coast (accessed June 29, 2015).
Thieme, Darius. “Afro-American Folksong Scholarship.” Black Music Research Journal 10, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 9-13. http://www.jstor.org/stable/779524 (accessed November 30, 2015).
Taylor, Yuval and Jake Austen. Darkest America: Black Minstrelsy from Slavery to Hip-Hop. New York: Norton, 2012.