Reprocessing and Digitizing the William D. Workman, Jr. Papers Photographs: Beach Music

On October 22, 1960, the Drifters’ beach music classic, “Save the Last Dance For Me,” reached the number one spot on the Billboard Hot 100. According to the South Carolina Encyclopedia, “[b]each music, as it is known in the South, originated in the coastal Carolinas in the years following World War II.” The encyclopedia entry goes on to detail the origins and evolution of the genre. Beach music is particularly associated with Myrtle Beach and Ocean Drive, which is now part of North Myrtle Beach.

Below are two of William D. Workman’s images of the area in the 1940s, when beach music was born. Each picture is followed by a Google Maps Street View image of the same location in 2017. Of particular interest is Workman’s photo of the Roberts Pavilion. This was one of the early venues for beach music and shag dancing. A historical marker commemorating the pavilion is visible in the Google Maps image of the area.


Ocean Drive

Photograph showing the dead end of an unpaved road. Ocean is visible in the background. One and two-story wooden buildings are visible on the left side of the road. Roberts Pavilion, a large, white, three-story building, and a small cafe are visible on the right. Multiple cars are parked near the buildings, as is a greyhound bus. Two unidentified men walk across the picture's middleground.

The Roberts Pavilion and other businesses in the Ocean Drive area. May 27, 1946. Photo by William D. Workman, Jr.

Intersection of Ocean Boulevard and Main Street in North Myrtle Beach, looking toward ocean. Both roads are paved. A modern, multi-story hotel is visible on the left. On the right, a historical marker for the Roberts Pavilion is visible on the street corner. Behind it is a parking lot, with a business in the background.

Same section of Ocean Drive as shown above. January 2017. Google Maps Street View image. Click image to open Google Maps.


Myrtle Beach

Photograph of a wide, unpaved road. Road curves to right in background. Businesses visible on the left side of the road include gas stations, a restaurant, and a two-story brick bank. Two gas stations and two restaurants are visible on the right-hand side of the road. Other buildings are visible in the picture's background. 1940s-era cars are traveling down both sides of the road. Cars are also packed in front of the the businesses along the road.

Businesses along SC-17 in Myrtle Beach. August 5, 1947. Photo by William D. Workman, Jr.

View of SC-17 Business and US-501 where they fork. In the background, SC-17 veers to the left, while US-501 veers to the right. No businesses are visible on the left side of the road, only a sidewalk, short grass, and palmetto trees. On the right side of the road there is a sidewalk, beyond which there is a grass lawn and relatively modern-looking one-story businesses. A light-colored, two-story restaurant is visible in the background on the right, where US-501 curves out of sight. This building is also visible in Workman's picture, although in his picture its facade was darker and housed a different restaurant.

Same section of Myrtle Beach as shown above. January 2017. Google Maps Street View image. Click image to open Google Maps.


Reprocessing and digitization of the William D. Workman, Jr. Papers photographs has been made possible by a grant from the National Historic Publications & Records Commission.

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Impeaching the President

Jim Mann

Congressman James R. Mann

Jim Mann, son of former U.S. representative James R. Mann, recently suggested I might enjoy watching a 1983 documentary on the Nixon impeachment hearings. 

Mann (1920-2010), a Democrat, represented South Carolina’s 4th District from 1969 to 1979.  He donated his papers to SCPC in 1997.  Mann was serving on the House Judiciary Committee in 1974, when it held hearings that ultimately led to a Committee recommendation to impeach President Richard M. Nixon.  This all stemmed from the Nixon administration’s efforts to cover up the infamous 1972 Watergate break-in

The multi-part documentary, Summer of Judgement, is available on YouTube and was produced by Washington’s public television station WETA.  Noted journalist Charles McDowell serves as narrator. 

Jim Mann

Mann (center right) fields questions from reporters in a crowded hearing room.

The first episode, The Impeachment Hearings, examines this highly unusual House Judiciary Committee investigation into the president and the Nixon administration.  Mann features prominently in the hour-long program and is described by McDowell as the most conservative Democrat on the Committee. 

Two subsequent episodes examine the Senate Watergate Hearings, broadcast live on television.  These hearings transfixed the nation.  This superb documentary showcases the complexity and difficulties inherent in the impeachment process.  It is both an enormous and an intensely emotional undertaking.

By Herb Hartsook

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Reprocessing the William D. Workman Jr. Papers Photographs: First Steps

Exterior shot of a restaurant that occupied a narrow, three-story, light-colored brick building and an adjacent two-story, dark-colored brick building.

“Henry’s—For years on end one of the best-known (probably the best-known) of Charleston eating places.” (Workman’s caption)
Photo taken c. 1937 or 1938.

Last fall, I gathered information about the photographic materials in William D. Workman Jr.’s Papers for use in SCPC’s NHPRC grant application. Born and raised in Charleston, South Carolina, I felt sure that my grasp on local history was sufficient for the task of identifying photographs from my home state. However, as I began to work with the collection, I was confronted with how little I knew about my own city—much less the entire state. I also encountered how little of our recent past is readily accessible on the open web.

While some aspects of the project could be tedious—like comparing prints, slides, and negatives to identify duplicates—I immediately realized the significance of improving access to these images and preserving the originals. I fell in love with the Workman project then, so when a position opened up this fall to help reprocess and digitize his collection, I applied immediately.

As Laura mentioned in her last post, the first step of this project is to “change the way [the images] are arranged and described in the finding aid. This will help people find relevant images more easily.” Before actually touching anything, I had to create a processing plan to show how I thought the images should be organized—essentially creating a new finding aid for the photographic materials in Workman’s collection. The existing finding aid retains the slides, negatives, and prints in the order in which Workman kept them. He primarily divided the photographic material by location, but overlapping locations and a lack of folder-level description led to confusion. As a result, many significant people, places, and events hide in general files.

Graduate Assistant Mae Howe working with photographic materials.

Mae hard at work reprocessing the Workman photos.

To highlight the wealth of photographic materials represented in Workman’s collection, I tried to identify as many people, places, and events as I possibly could. I spent hours with the images, a magnifying glass, and a light box. Then, after days spent writing notes and conducting research, I decided to keep Workman’s separation by locality. To be consistent, I used county as the primary heading, city as the secondary heading (when applicable), and information such as landmarks and events as tertiary headings. Also, I added a “topical” section for photographed subjects that spanned multiple counties, including the military, politics, and the Savannah River Plant.

At first, I thought this process would be relatively straightforward and that I would surely finish my processing plan by the end of my first work week. However, four drafts and fifty-four hours later, my plan was officially approved, and I have begun the physical reprocessing of this collection. Although the project will take about a year to complete, we look forward to sharing some of our findings along the way.

By Mae Howe

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Launching Our Grant Project: Reprocessing and Digitizing the William D. Workman, Jr. Papers

William Workman

William D. Workman, Jr comparing the size of the U.S. Constitution and the federal budget’s appendix volume

If you follow SCPC on Facebook or Twitter, you probably saw our June announcement that the National Historical Publications & Records Commission granted us $17,658 for our project, Reprocessing and Digitizing the William D. Workman, Jr. Papers.

As I wrote in a blog post about the Workman Papers photographs last December:

William D. Workman, Jr. was a well-known South Carolina journalist, newspaper editor, and talented photographer. His career as a newspaperman made him a household name throughout the state, and his book The Case for the South provided an important argument in defense of segregation. Although unsuccessful, Workman’s 1962 bid to become one of South Carolina’s US Senators created the skeleton of a statewide Republican Party in what was then a solidly Democratic state.

The Workman Papers are remarkable for their breadth and depth on a number of important issues. The collection’s strengths include civil rights, race relations, politics, and the creation of the Savannah River Plant nuclear facility. These and other themes are represented not just in the textual material in the collection, but in the photographs and other audiovisual materials, as the images below illustrate.

That blog post also contains “sneak peeks” of the types of images that we will be able to make more accessible to scholars, students, and the public as a result of the grant.

So, what will we be doing to make the Workman photos more accessible to users?

First, we’ll change the way they’re arranged and described in the finding aid. This will help people find relevant images more easily. At the same time, we’ll put the collection’s photographs, negatives, and 35mm slides into more protective archival enclosures. This will help protect the items from future damage and extend their lifespans, meaning they’ll be available for use for a much longer period of time.

Next, we will digitize the images and make them available online as a digital collection. Everybody with internet access will be able to check out these photos anytime they want!

William Workman

A view of Walterboro, SC, in 1948 by Workman

When we begin making digitized images available next spring, we’ll also start a crowd-sourcing project to allow the public to add information about individual images. So if you recognize a person, place, or event in a particular image, we’d love to hear from you! This will be SCPC’s first crowd-sourcing project, and we’ll be interested to see how it goes.

As the project director, I use the word “we” a lot. The truth is that most of the day-to-day work on this project will be done by grant-funded Graduate Assistant Mae Howe. Mae is a second-year MLIS candidate. She was previously one of our “regular” SCPC graduate student workers. She has been an asset to SCPC, and I am pleased to have her as our project GA.

Mae and I will continue to blog about this project. We’ll also share especially interesting collection images on SCPC’s Facebook and Twitter accounts. Keep an eye out for updates!

By Laura Litwer

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The Inspirational Sarah Leverette

Sarah Leverette

Sarah Leverette made the cover of Midlands Woman magazine, July 2001.

SCPC donor and friend, Sarah Leverette, will garner another accolade when, on Tuesday, September 26th, she is awarded the 2017 Rev. Sen. Clementa C. Pinckney Award for Justice by the S.C. Appleseed Legal Justice Center. 

The award will be celebrated at their Advocate of the Year reception at 300 Senate Street in downtown Columbia.  Festivities begin at 5:30.   

See their website for more information.

I’m sure Sarah will have an opportunity to address the crowd.  Those who haven’t heard Sarah before can expect a rare treat as she is a moving, powerful speaker with something to say.  I hope to see you there.

By Herb Hartsook

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Hollings and the Exploration of Space

Shuttle Discovery

Photo of the Space Shuttle Discovery, Sept 22, 1993, inscribed to Senator Hollings by Commander Frank L. Culbertson Jr., a South Carolinian

On August 21, Columbia will be one of the lucky destinations in the direct path of the total solar eclipse.  At SCPC, we’re joining in celebration with our colleagues at the University of South Carolina to bring you a new exhibit, “Fritz Hollings and the Exploration of Space.”

The exhibit features stellar selections from our Ernest F. Hollings collection including photographs from the Southern Governors’ Conference visit to Cape Canaveral on the eve of Mercury-Atlas 8’s launch (1962), a US flag patch flown aboard the Orbiter Discovery (1988), letters from enthusiastic supporters of NASA’s space program, and records relating to the investigations of the Challenger (1986) and Columbia (2003) tragedies.

“Hollings and the Exploration of Space” will be on display in the Brittain Gallery (Hollings Library, Main Floor) Aug 16 – Oct 31.

Check out the exhibit and Tweet us your feedback! @UofSC_SCPC #HollingsInSpace

Cape Canaveral

Attendees of the Southern Governors’ Conference on the launch viewing stand at Cape Canaveral, 1962

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Staffers & Political History: Key Links in the Chain

graham office

Staffers at work in Senator Graham’s DC office

SCPC typically enjoys long close relationships with our donors and often with their families and/or senior staff.  In some offices, staff come and go.  In others, senior staff stay with their bosses for years.  Fritz Hollings and Lindsey Graham are members whose staff have often had remarkable tenures. 

We often tout the Graham office as our example of a perfect donor.  We have a strong working relationship with his Washington and South Carolina offices.  His collection receives regular additions.  The additions are materials we want and which add substance to the collection.  The office carefully labels every carton alerting us to the contents.  And, the labels are accurate.  This is not the case with many congressional donors.  It has been the norm for the Graham office since we first received material in 2002 as he prepared to leave the House for the Senate. 

Fritz Hollings has had staffers who worked for him for twenty-five, thirty years and longer.  For our Hollings Oral History Project, a number of these terrifically bright individuals provided unique insights into Hollings and his career.  Through these interviews and other contacts, we’ve forged relationships with many of his most ardent supporters. 

Cartoon depicting New Hampshire voters’ unfamiliarity with Hollings during his run for the presidency
(Kate Salley Palmer)

Jackie McGinnis headed Hollings’ presidential campaign (1983-1984) in the early voting state of New Hampshire.  Hollings was among of a large field of attractive Democratic candidates and became a media favorite.  His strong platform called for a freeze to instill sanity into the federal budget and reporters were particularly drawn to his forceful and eminently quotable speaking style.  Unfortunately, early voters didn’t buy in to Hollings’ candidacy and he withdrew from the race early in 1984.

The Hollings Collection documents well his race for the presidency and Jackie has donated invaluable material.  She remains a devoted Hollings fan and a great friend to SCPC.  Recently, she sent us a dramatic portrait painted in 1982 by noted courtroom sketch artist Freda L. Reiter (1919-1986), and we are excited to add this portrait to our collection.

Following are Jackie’s comments on the portrait:

Freda Reiter

Freda Reiter signature

In 1983/84 I had the privilege of running Senator Hollings’ presidential campaign office in New Hampshire.  The Reiter portrait was displayed in that office.  I recently found the portrait among some treasured items I had put away for safekeeping. I had forgotten that I even had it – but as soon as I found it again, I knew that it belonged in the Hollings Special Collections Library at USC.

During the campaign, I learned a great deal.  I also had a lot of fun.  I admire the Senator so much and very much enjoyed my time with him and Peatsy.  There were many memorable moments.  From the visits of the “Hollings Home Team” from South Carolina to do some canvassing to the dramatic recitations provided by the Senator in the car as we traveled from one campaign stop to another.  Some were so funny that I could hardly see the road because of the tears of laughter coming from my eyes listening to that great voice reading from a favored book.  It still makes me smile when I think about it today.

We have continued to keep in touch over the years and that has meant a great deal to me.  The Senator is a very special person who models all the best qualities that make an exceptional U.S. Senator or President of the United States.  I am very proud of the fact that I once worked for Senator Hollings and had the opportunity to get to know him a little on the personal level as well.  He will always have my deepest respect, my friendship and my love.

The pastel portrait

hollings pastel portrait

By Herb Hartsook

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Battle Flag Battle: The Second Anniversary of the Removal of the Confederate Battle Flag

McNair and West

Robert McNair and John West make their entrance at West’s 1971 inauguration as governor.

This week, SCPC received from the West Foundation a memento of the fight to remove the Confederate Battle Flag from the South Carolina State House.  July 10 marked the second anniversary of the removal of the flag from the State House grounds.

The flag was raised over the State House in 1962 to commemorate the Civil War centennial.  One of our most popular blog posts ever, from July 10, 2015, presented historian John Hammond Moore’s history of the flying of the flag.  For even more on the flag’s removal, see our post of June 24, 2015

The memento we just received is a framed copy of the 1999 petition presented to the state legislature calling for the flag’s removal from the State House dome, where it flew beneath the American and state flags. 

John Carl West (1922-2004) served in the US Army during World War II, and as a state senator, Lt. Governor, Governor and US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia.  Known for his intelligence and compassion, in 1999 he helped lead the effort to move the flag, which had become a highly divisive issue.  In December 1999, surviving members of the 1962 General Assembly, led by West and Bob McNair, who preceded West as governor, petitioned the General Assembly to remove the flag from the Dome. They argued that the original intent of the Assembly was simply to commemorate the Civil War, that the flag should have come down afterwards, and the fact that it did not was an oversight in the drafting of the legislation. Signers included SCPC donors West, McNair, Charlie Boineau, Don Holland, Ryan Shealy and Nick Zeigler, and SCPC friends Steve Griffith and Crosby Lewis.  Showing his humor, West proclaimed them “the has-been brigade.”

The day the flag came down

The petition was front page news.  West declared, “This petition represents a historic event. It is the first time in the history of South Carolina. . . that the former legislative body, after more than a quarter of a century, has petitioned . . . an existing legislative body to correct an oversight or error, remedy a wrong and heal a divisive situation.”

The petition helped generate support for some compromise and in 2000, the flag was moved to a pole mounted on the State House grounds beside the Confederate Soldier Monument.  But the sentiment against the flag grew and on July 10, 2015, it was finally removed from the State House grounds to the Confederate Relic Room, completing the process urged by West and his colleagues back in 1999.  We are very pleased to have this memento testifying to the leadership of Governors West and McNair.

By Herb Hartsook

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A Good Slogan: Encapsulating the Essence of a Campaign

Every politician wants a simple campaign slogan that speaks to the hearts of the people and showcases their qualities for office.  A powerful and memorable slogan can be effective in promoting a campaign.  Many my age remember Barry Goldwater’s slogan — In Your Heart, You Know He’s Right.  Of course, just as many recall the opposition’s spin on that one — In Your Guts, You Know He’s Nuts.

John West’s choice

In processing the papers of John West, former governor and ambassador to Saudi Arabia, we discovered a list of over fifty slogans considered by West in his 1970 bid for governor.  It was fascinating and we’ve exhibited the list on a number of occasions.  Some must have earned a quick head shake, like Turn West and Build South Carolina.  West ultimately selected a simple slogan that spoke to the difference he saw between his candidacy and that of his Republican opponent, Albert Watson.  West ultimately chose Elect a Good Man Governor

Albert Watson

Race relations was a key concern in South Carolina and across the nation in 1970.  The issue of busing particularly captured the country’s attention.  The gubernatorial campaign highlighted strong ideological differences between the two candidates.  Watson wore a white necktie to signal his stand on segregation.  By contrast, West was a progressive.  Famously, he had challenged the Klan while serving in the state Senate.  His slogan could be read in two ways — he was a good candidate in that he was well-qualified to lead South Carolina, and he was a good man who would work for all South Carolinians.  West won the election with 53.2% of the major party vote.  Surely his “good slogan” played at least a small part in his victory.

South Carolina has seen any number of memorable slogans.  Olin Johnston’s Roll In With Olin became a song as well as his slogan.  He also campaigned under the slogan Service, Seniority, Sobriety.  Johnston neither drank nor smoked.  Daughter Liz Patterson’s slogan, A Career of Helping People, reminded voters of her lifelong devotion to improving the lives of others as a Peace Corps worker, VISTA organizer, Head Start coordinator, and public official.

And, I’ll end with another favorite, Performance is Better than PromiseFritz Hollings used this slogan for decades.  It emphasizes his distinguished record of achievement making government work for the people while maintaining a sound fiscal structure. 

We’d love to hear your favorite slogans!   

Herb Hartsook

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Two collections find each other: Dixie Walker Papers

Richard L. “Dixie” Walker

Ambassador Richard L. “Dixie” Walker

We recently learned that Drew University in Madison, New Jersey, holds a collection of papers of Richard L. “Dixie” Walker, former ambassador to the Republic of Korea (1981-1986) and founder of the Institute for International Studies at U of SC (since renamed the Walker Institute in his honor).  Walker received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Drew in 1944, before going on to graduate studies at Yale University.

SCPC has a small collection from Walker, consisting of 9.5 linear feet of material primarily documenting his service as ambassador, his family, his publications, and some speeches and topical files.  We were excited to see that Drew’s collection of Walker materials encompasses some 55 linear feet, including very extensive correspondence files and substantive information on his research, publications, and travels.  Drew also holds additional files on Walker’s career in what was then U of SC’s Department of Government and International Studies, as well as scrapbooks, desk diaries, and audiovisual materials.

Now that we know of these complementary collections, the two finding aids are linked online, making it easier for researchers to see what resources are available at both repositories on Walker’s fascinating career in academia as well as public service.

Walker exhibit

Items in the Drew University exhibit on Amb. Walker
(photo from Drew University)

Drew also has installed a temporary exhibit, “The Ambassador’s Life: Richard ‘Dixie’ Walker in South Korea,” curated by Brian Shetler, which will be on display until August 11 in the United Methodist Archives and History Center and Main Library. 

If you are in the area of Madison, New Jersey, please stop by to see it!

By Dorothy Walker (no relation!)

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