Establishment of the Center for Civil Rights History and Research at U of SC

Jim Clyburn

Congressman Jim Clyburn addresses the audience at the announcement event for the new Civil Rights Center.

Monday was a momentous day at the Hollings Library as the University announced the creation of the Center for Civil Rights History and Research. Here are some excerpts from the news release:

University President Harris Pastides announced the creation of the center Monday (Nov. 23). It will be the first single entity dedicated to telling South Carolina’s civil rights story. Also Monday, Rep. James Clyburn, the state’s first African-American member of Congress since Reconstruction and the assistant House Democratic leader, said he would donate his Congressional papers to the new center. “I am honored to add my Congressional papers to the University of South Carolina’s significant civil rights collection. The establishment of the Center for Civil Rights History and Research allows for my Congressional papers to be a part of a larger effort to give vibrancy to South Carolina’s history and credence to its civil rights activities. . . .

Tom McNally

Library Dean Tom McNally speaks as President Pastides, Congressman Clyburn, and History Professor Bobby Donaldson look on.

University Libraries Dean Thomas McNally. . . said he envisions a center where visitors can learn through exhibits and programs and where students and scholars can conduct research using original documents. “Many young people today don’t know this state’s civil rights story or comprehend the sacrifice and courage of those involved in the movement,” he said. “Our collections contain personal accounts that tell South Carolina’s story in a way that will bring to life this transformational time in our history.” McNally said the center will start small, initially being housed in the Hollings Library. He hopes that eventually there will be a facility for the center, similar to those in other states around the country.

Moores with Perry

Bob Moore and his wife Meribeth with Judge Matthew Perry several years ago. Moore has donated his papers and interview tapes to SCPC.

A terrific audience was assembled and was given the opportunity to view exhibits that included material on Congressman Clyburn, the papers of Luther Battiste, Bob Moore, I. DeQuincey Newman, and Modjeska Simkins, and our oral histories with former governors Fritz Hollings and Donald Russell in which they discussed the integration of Clemson University and USC by Harvey Gantt and Henrie Monteith Treadwell.

Politics is all about relationships and this was evident Monday. In his remarks, Clyburn mentioned that his mentor and SCPC donor John West had encouraged Clyburn to place his papers at USC. And the Center should, in time, become a destination for the public and scholars interested in learning about the struggle for equality in South Carolina.

USC desegregation

Robert Anderson, Henrie Monteith, and James Solomon, Jr, leave the USC Administration building, 1963.

Clyburn’s desire to use his papers as a base from which to create something broader recalls Sen. Hollings’ purpose in donating his own papers to USC in 1991. He, too, hoped that USC would use the momentum from his gift to develop Political Collections into a major center for the study of South Carolina government, politics and society. And he worked to help achieve that goal. Among the collections he helped us solicit are those of his good friends Jim Edwards and John West.

Also present on Monday was SCPC donor Robin Tallon. Tallon was Clyburn’s predecessor in Congress, serving five terms representing the 6th District. When that district was reconfigured as a black majority district, Tallon retired from the House rather than wage a campaign which pundits thought he would win, but in doing so, could tear the district apart. Clyburn and Tallon have been friends ever since.

This is an exciting time for the University and I look forward to my service on the Implementation Committee working toward our shared vision for the new Center.

Herb Hartsook

See a video of the event and remarks by Pastides, McNally, History Professor Bobby Donaldson and Clyburn.

(For more information on the desegregation of the University of South Carolina, see the “5oth Anniversary of Desegregation” web page.)


Herb Hartsook (center) listens to the speakers at the announcement event.

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Governor Robert E. McNair


Bob McNair in 1966

In 1979, I came to South Carolina to work for the state Department of Archives and History.  At that time, the Archives was engaged in a major oral history project documenting the gubernatorial term (1965-1971) of Robert McNair (1923-2007).  In 1979, he headed the state’s most prestigious law firm, one with a regional presence and international clientele.  And I was told that Bob McNair was the most influential person in South Carolina.

news clip

…[W]e have run the legal course…

The oral history consisted of an extensive interview with the Governor and more focused interviews with over twenty other McNair associates.  This major undertaking was designed to cultivate the relationship between the Archives and McNair, in hopes that McNair would give them his official gubernatorial papers.  McNair was the last governor to control his official papers.  These were stored at the Archives but remained his personal property.  The official papers of subsequent governors became, by law, the property of the state.


Ribbon-cutting for Transit Homes Savings Bank, Greenville, 1967

Eventually, Gov. McNair donated his papers to USC’s Southern Studies department.  He eventually approved them coming to SCPC, where they were processed and opened for study.  In addition to the personal papers of eleven of our recent governors, we also hold official gubernatorial papers of Fritz Hollings, who served from 1959 to 1963.  McNair’s collection documents his service in the South Carolina House of Representatives (Allendale County), 1951-1962; as Lt. Governor, 1963-1965; and as Governor.

McNally desk

Dean McNally at the McNair desk

The progressive McNair worked to develop and broaden the state’s economy and improve education throughout the state.  At a time of great turmoil, he was a constant advocate for the peaceful and orderly desegregation of the state’s public accommodations and public schools.  He also initiated major innovations in economic development, created the state’s first state-supported kindergartens, and appointed the first African-Americans to state boards and commissions and to a professional position on his executive staff.  He created the Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism and is credited with improving the overall financial management and operation of state government.  His service was marred by the incident at South Carolina State University in which three students were killed.  For more about McNair, we highly recommend the Phil Grose biography, South Carolina at the Brink.


Identifying plaque on the desk

I came to like and admire him greatly.  He helped SCPC in many ways and even gave us a desk that, for years, served as the focal point of our reading room.  He used the desk when he was chair of the House Judiciary Committee and later in his law office.  This fall, the office of Dean of Libraries Tom McNally was remodeled, and the McNair desk now serves as his desk.  It is appropriate as McNally, like McNair, is devoted to this University and to the public that uses our rich Library resources.

By Herb Hartsook

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iPRES 2015

I recently attended the 12th International Conference on Digital Preservation, also known as iPRES 2015. Over 300 people from around the world gathered on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to discuss a variety of issues related to digital preservation.

Since starting as SCPC’s Digital Initiatives Archivist in April, I’ve spent a lot of time working on getting the basics of our digital preservation program in place. This has included drafting accessioning procedures, researching and requesting hardware, ingesting born-digital materials, and preparing information to share with our donors about managing and (eventually) transferring their born-digital records to us.

Refer to caption.

SCPC’s electronic records workstation and USB write blocker.

Attending iPRES gave me an opportunity to think more about our long-term goals and learn how to work towards them more efficiently and effectively. Particularly thought-provoking were a full-day tutorial on ways to make progress towards becoming a Trustworthy Digital Repository and a “Policy and Practice Documentation Clinic” session. Santi Thompson, a University of South Carolina alumnus and former SCPC Graduate Assistant, presented a paper titled “Preserving the Fruit of Our Labor:  Establishing Digital Preservation Policies and Strategies and the University of Houston Libraries” that I also found particularly relevant. There were many interesting and inspiring paper and poster presentations, demos, and other sessions in addition to the standouts mentioned above. The official conference proceedings will be posted on the International Conference on Digital Preservation’s website.

The information and ideas that I’ve brought back from the conference will help me improve SCPC’s digital preservation program, and will hopefully also ultimately benefit broader digital preservation efforts within the University Libraries.

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Congressman Tom Rice Visits SCPC

Tom Rice

SCPC Director Herb Hartsook welcomes Congressman Rice to our facility.

Tom Rice was on campus last week for Homecoming and took time from his hectic schedule to tour SCPC and learn more about our program. Rice earned both his master’s and law degrees from USC, and on that Homecoming Friday afternoon the congressman addressed a crowd of Gamecock fans gathered in front of the Russell House, encouraging the fans to root for Carolina over Vanderbilt on Saturday. As Rice predicted, the Gamecocks earned their first SEC victory the next day. He seemed to enjoy his visit to SCPC. He was accompanied by his wife, Wrenzie, and DC office scheduler Terra Davis. Terra took the photos that illustrate this post.

Rice and Hartsook

Herb explains our archival procedures and services as the repository of a congressman’s papers.

Congressman Rice represents South Carolina’s newest congressional district. The 7th District encompasses parts of eight northeastern counties including Georgetown and Horry. The district was created as a result of the great population growth experienced in South Carolina as determined by the 2010 census.

In the first race to represent the 7th district, in 2012, the Republican primary attracted a large field: nine candidates, headlined by former Lt. Governor Andre Bauer. Rice forced Bauer into a runoff and then won the election, receiving 56% of the vote. Rice serves on the Transportation and Infrastructure, Small Business and Budget committees, where his expertise developed as a CPA and tax attorney stands him in good stead. One of his key interests are South Carolina’s ports and particularly that in Georgetown.

Rice and Davis

Congressman and Wrenzie Rice tour our exhibits.

Rice, like most current members of Congress, makes efficient use of technology. He has his own YouTube channel, a Facebook account followed by over eight thousand friends, and a Twitter account which often features messages for his constituents. After South Carolina experienced torrential flooding, he tweeted, My district offices will serve as bottled water donation locations for South Carolinians in need.

We are hopeful that Mr. Rice may soon join the ranks of SCPC donors and entrust his papers to our care. If he does, it will be quite different from the collections of earlier congressmen like Bryan Dorn and Floyd Spence. They dealt with thousands of letters from constituents and voluminous files of paperwork relating to issues before Congress. Current members see little actual paper, instead their offices chiefly work with electronic records. That is the great challenge presented to congressional archivists and one which we hope our new Digital Initiatives Archivist Laura Litwer will help us solve.

Rice and Wilson

Rice’s associate Joe Wilson has donated some of SCPC’s most interesting ephemera, including this life-size cardboard stand-up (which Rice seemed to want for himself) and a voting machine. Both of these items are prominently displayed in our processing area.

Rice and Wilson


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In Memoriam: Martha Edens

Martha Edens

Martha Edens in 1982

Martha Edens was laid to rest yesterday. Among her many achievements, she played an important role in the rise of South Carolina’s Republican Party. Ms. Edens took an interest in South Carolina Political Collections soon after we were created in 1991, and was a source of support and counsel.

Perhaps the single most important political development in South Carolina of the 20th century was the rise of the Republican Party, and Martha Edens was an important activist in Republican Party affairs at the local, state and national levels beginning in the late 1950s. Her distinguished Party service included two terms as National Committeewoman. Her brother, J. Drake Edens, Jr., is considered by some to have been the father of the Republican Party in South Carolina for his organizational efforts and service as Party Chairman in the early 1960s.


Ms. Edens (in blue) on a bus with Governor Carroll Campbell and State Representative (later U.S. Ambassador to Canada) David Wilkins

In a memorable oral history interview we conducted, Ms. Edens noted, “the Republican Party looks for people with ability and the gender doesn’t bother them at all. I was never denied the opportunity to do anything I wanted to do in the Republican Party because I was a woman. We (she and her brother) never wanted to run for political office. All we wanted to do was create a situation where other people that were qualified could offer for elective office. We preferred to help candidates organize campaigns and raise money. I am grateful that I had an opportunity to be a part of something that began with such a small number of dedicated people that has grown to its present day position of prominence. Our party has made an impact on our State as well as our Nation. I have loved every minute of my involvement, the good and the bad.”

Ms. Edens was generous with her time and always seemed happy to hear from me, even though I most often called on her for advice on how best to approach a prospective donor. As one of South Carolina’s Republican elders, her early support helped raise our visibility and demonstrated SCPC’s acceptance as a non-partisan repository.

Edens and Spence

Ms. Edens with her good friend Floyd Spence

Politics was just one of Ms. Edens’ interests and she helped with innumerable charitable endeavors benefiting organizations like Richland Memorial Hospital and the United Way. I noted many young women at her memorial service and assume these were just some of the ladies Ms. Edens influenced through her leadership in her sorority, Zeta Tau Alpha, which she served as Province President, Vice President, National President for three terms, and Extension Director.

edens children

Drake and Martha Edens

When I think of Martha Edens, I always think of two things. First was her gentle and kind reaction to a student assistant who accompanied me for our oral history. As we were packing our equipment at the conclusion of the interview, the student, who had been enchanted by the many miniature elephants in Ms. Edens’ home, naively asked, “What led to your interest in elephants?” Of course, the elephant is the symbol of the Republican Party. The only collection I have seen that rivaled hers was that of her good friend Floyd Spence. Second, was her drive and work ethic. After we both attended a planning meeting for a Republican history group, Ms. Edens shared with me her frustration that the meeting had produced nothing tangible. She felt that each attendee should have left the meeting with a clear task. She truly wanted to do something, not talk about doing things.

At the service yesterday, her minister noted how much she did throughout her life to help people, often making her gifts anonymously. To me, that is the hallmark of her inspirational life – the drive to make a difference, without the need for acclaim and recognition.

By Herb Hartsook

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Top Ten Books on Government and Politics: Recommendations by Historian Jack Roper

booksThe other day, SCPC friend and historian Jack Roper and I began to discuss “must reads,” and I challenged Jack to list his ten “must reads” on government and politics. He graciously suggested the following titles, and provided a brief comment on each. We hope that this will be the first of a number of these lists suggested by other friends. I may even venture a list at some point.

Enjoy!                                     Herb Hartsook


Dr. Jack Roper

Dr. Roper writes:

I got hung up between classics that affect how I think and do research, and works that really affect my specific understanding of process. So I mixed the two kinds of things up. Omissions that are important for you to know: I initially listed Vann Woodward, Reunion and Reaction; Tindall, Disruption of the Solid South; and Blum, The Republican Roosevelt, but reluctantly left them as nos. 11, 12, and 13.

There is one dog that doesn’t bark: As great as Merrill Peterson and other authorities are, no one has written a book that captures Jefferson’s genius in building the Democratic Republican party, the way he found regional and subregional leaders in Virginia and New York, but also the backcountry. We need such a book.

Here is a list, in cardinal order:

1. Aristotle, Ars Politica, trans. Jowett. There is wisdom in Aristotle about all things, and especially the political. I review what he sees as principles and watch for them in actors.

2. Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. and ed. Constantine. Machiavelli is denser and more complicated than many think; I especially like the way he understands that there are serious limits to what anyone can do as leader no matter the system. I find many of his examples of how people will react to actions to be especially good. I remember that the Founding Fathers and Lincoln all regarded Machiavelli as extremely important.

3. John Caldwell Calhoun, Collected Works, ed. Wilson (primarily on concurrent majorities). He is certainly wrong on slavery and race, but his description of concurrent majorities is a wonderful way to understand how power blocs work in our federalist system.

4. James Madison with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, The Federalist Papers. Ed. Bosch and Smith (University of Wisconsin) I think it is useful to see what Madison in particular thought the republic would be all about. Obviously I read this in dialogue and dialectic with Calhoun.

5. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. Hobbes has ripe observations about motivation and insights into how people act, with or without power. Like Machiavelli, he understands the limits of power even and especially for the Leviathan. The way our Commander in Chief Leviathans are often hamstrung is already forecast there in Hobbes’s work.

6. Theodore Sorensen, Kennedy. Although there is some cheer-leading, Sorensen really details Kennedy’s actions while Senator and President and accurately reveals a Liberal’s thinking in another era. In particular, he reminds us how limited was Kennedy’s vision on civil rights despite the soaring rhetoric.

7. James McGregor Burns, Roosevelt, 2 volumes (especially The Lion and the Fox). I think Burns, using Machiavelli’s template on the lion and the fox, does a great job showing how our most successful president got things done, whether admirable or not.

8. Gordon S. Wood, Creation of the American Republic. Such a careful and close reading of the thinking of the Founding Fathers, with a deft transition from the fervor of radical revolution to the checks and balances and judicious governance of the Constitution.

9. William W. Freehling, Prelude to Civil War. South Carolina starts the War, and the start of the start is the crisis with Nullification. An excellent study of the men and the forces who could not be reasoned with—and a reminder of how badly Calhoun wanted to prevent disunion.

10. Robert Caro, Lyndon Johnson, 3 volumes. Caro does not understand Texas and does not try very hard to understand it, but he surely follows LBJ as he makes his remarkable climb to power. It’s a corking narrative and with a clear moral vision concerning a great man with a tragic flaw.

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Congressman, Gentleman, Friend: Remembering Floyd D. Spence


Congressman Floyd Spence in his office

Politicians are typically “people persons.” They like people and want to serve, to do good things that help their constituents. That constituent base might take the form of a neighborhood, a city, a congressional district, a state, or the nation. Good politicians use every meeting with their constituents to work towards building a personal relationship.

Floyd Spence represented South Carolina’s Second District in Congress from 1971 until his death in 2001. He was a masterful politician. Over the years in developing his collection and through an extended oral history I conducted with Mr. Spence, I certainly came to view him as my friend.


Spence at the 1976 Republican National Convention in Kansas City

I often tell of his response when, shortly after Political Collections was established, I wrote him soliciting his collection. He called the same day he received my letter and asked what he could do to help. I responded that he could pledge his papers to the University. I remember his response as though it was yesterday. “Done. What else can I do?”

When he passed away, the outpouring of grief was overwhelming. An amazing number of people across his district and the nation described an intensely personal loss of a close friend. To this day, I have not witnessed anything like the personal identification his constituents felt with Mr. Spence.


Spence at home working in his garden, 1989

Tomorrow Lexington County, Spence’s home county, holds its celebrated Okra Strut festival. Mr. Spence loved to ride in the parade and wave to his friends. It will be an occasion when I will particularly miss my friend, Floyd Spence. I thought it would be appropriate today to share some favorite Spence quotes:

Since 1970, the year of my first election to Congress, I have made only one campaign promise: that I would be a voice of reason and responsibility among Washington politicians who put their own special interests above the public interests. I believe I have kept that promise…you are my special interest.

Getting along with people is the best way to get along in life. I work hard at getting along with people.

I’ve got a lot of people who . . . believe in me and stay with me. Philosophically, the district and I agree. I guess that’s the biggest thing. The main thing is that you’re suited to your district and that your district is suited to you.

In Congress, my duty is service to all the citizens of South Carolina. So I’ve worked hard to represent everyone – – Democrats, Republicans, and Independents alike.

spence taekwondo

Spence met twice a week with congressional colleagues to study the Korean martial art Taekwondo.

By Herb Hartsook

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The Passing of a Giant


The huge crowd outside the Spartanburg church where Johnston’s funeral was in progress; he was interred at Barkers Creek Baptist Church, Honea Path, S.C

Olin Dewitt Talmadge Johnston (1896-1965) served as S.C. Governor (1935-1939 & 1943-1945) and U.S. Senator (1945 until his death in office).  Shortly after he died, his family donated to the University an extensive collection of personal papers and memorabilia.  Johnston’s was the University’s first major congressional collection and it remains one of SCPC’s largest collections.  Years later, we received the papers of his daughter, Liz Patterson, who has devoted her life to public service, including three terms in the U.S. House.

Gladys Johnston

A grieving Gladys Johnston at her husband’s funeral

Recently, Mrs. Patterson and her family have donated substantial additional materials for both collections.  Johnston’s original collection included few photographs.  The new material includes a treasure trove of images.  It quickly became apparent that both Olin and his wife Gladys were very fashion conscious.  Johnston is shown in any number of beautifully tailored suits, matched with fashionable shoes, and wearing an array of hats, as men of his generation did.  Mrs. Johnston is pictured in beautiful outfits, each emphasizing her slender frame and stylish eye.

During his life, Olin Johnston was a giant on the South Carolina stage.  In processing his collection, I was impressed by his devotion to the people of South Carolina and his bravery in opposing Senator Joseph McCarthy in his attacks charging broad Communist leanings among the ranks of federal employees.  As chair of the Senate committee charged with oversight of federal employees, Johnston’s stance was notable.  Always the champion of the common people, Johnston was unwilling to be steamrollered by the McCarthy phenomenon.


President Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson attended the funeral with Mrs. Johnston.

One of the great joys of working with contemporary collections is that we typically get to know our donors, some very well. I have always regretted that I did not have a chance to meet the Senator and his wife.  The photos illustrating this blog come from a photo album on the Senator’s funeral, kept by Mrs. Johnston.  The scrapbook touched me and I imagine the image of Mrs. Johnston’s grief will stay with all who see it.

Herb Hartsook

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Oh, for a Rose by ANY Other Name!

You never know what may show up in political collections.  Among some recently-acquired material, we discovered evidence of one organization’s rather optimistic effort to shake up Congress.

The box it came in

The box it came in

As a response to the news that only 14% of Americans in 2013 approved the performance of the United States Congress, the National Rose Garden in Sunnyside, New York, is offering The Congressional Disapproval Rose Commemorative Plate.  For $75 you can sponsor a plate and have it sent to the Senator or Representative of your choice.

The program is non-partisan; as the Garden’s website explains:  “Hand-crafted in an edition of 535 sets, for each plate purchased another will be sent to a representative of your choosing…. We are attempting to acknowledge the shared landscape and shared responsibility that exists in our representative bodies. For that reason our goal is to place one plate with each member of the 113th Congress. We ask that you choose a representative who has not been sent a plate.”

A letter accompanying the plate reads: “While we admire and respect all service in the public realm, this gift is sent as an acknowledgement of the growing distance between the American public and its representative body.”  They hope the gift “will encourage thought on effective representation and our shared role in that process.” The letter closes with “We earnestly thank you for your public service and we hope that this brief intervention will illustrate our overlapping desires for a successful system of governance.”

The project is ongoing so the results are not yet known, but it’s probable that such an unusual endeavor will catch the eye of more than a few of our Representatives.

The Plate

The Plate

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South Carolina’s Nuclear State


Exhibit poster

As you may have seen, at the end of May we installed a new exhibit in our galleries entitled “Nuclear Carolina: Energy and Waste in the Palmetto State.” When Dorothy Walker, SCPC’s Associate Director, first approached me with the idea of an exhibit on nuclear energy in South Carolina, I put on a brave face; but I panicked. I knew next to nothing about nuclear energy period, let alone in this state. One of the great things about working in the archival field, though, is that you can to learn so much about all sorts of things you never expected to know about. It’s all a matter of what surprises you can find hidden in the collection.

It turns out we have a lot of material related to nuclear plants in our collections, because South Carolina has at least eight reactors currently active throughout the state! I was worried at first that I would be scraping for materials to make a proper exhibit on this topic, or that I would have to change topics altogether, but as it turns out, we have more than enough information in our collections on nuclear power, nuclear waste, and other related concerns.

Ellenton sign

The towns of Ellenton and Dunbarton were leveled to make way for the Savannah River Plant.   (photo: W.D. Workman Papers)

If you’ve seen the exhibit, you’ll notice that the two plants I focus on the most are both located on the southwest edge of the state: the Barnwell Waste Disposal Facility and the Savannah River Site. Although these sites are far from us here in Columbia, I cover them the most extensively because they caused the most controversy over the years. The Savannah River Site in particular had dozens of political cartoons and a host of speeches and other materials created by politicians and a variety of citizens.

Though as a nuclear processing facility particularly focused on weapons and research it differs widely from the other plants in the state, the environmental concerns surrounding the site ring true for other nuclear facilities in the state as well.

From the Savannah River Site and the Barnwell Facility to the numerous power plants elsewhere, South Carolina truly is a nuclear state!

Contributed by grad assistant Clara Bertagnolli 

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