Breaking News! Historical South Carolina Newspapers Libguide Now Online

Hello South Carolina History Lovers!

We at SCDNP have created an Historical South Carolina Newspapers Libguide and it is now available online. This subject guide will help you find primary sources in the 103,000 pages of historical S.C. newspapers that we have digitized since 2009, and will help you get the most out of searching South Carolina newspapers in Chronicling America.

To visit the SCDNP LibGuide, click on the image below, or visit http://guides.library.sc.edu/digitalnewspapers.

A View of the SCDNP LibGuide Homepage

Be sure to check out the Historical Newspapers timeline (Powered by Dipity Open Source Software) in which you can view dozens of great images and article headlines and dive right into reading fascinating historical newspaper content.

You can view the historical timeline with the Flipbook (my favorite), by Timeline, by List, or by Map View. When viewing the Flipbook, you can move back and forth through the articles by clicking on the arrows on the left and right sides of the page. Read Details, to learn more about each article, and click on an Image or its Details link to access a Link to that article in Chronicling America.

An Historical S.C. Newspapers Timeline Powered by Dipity

Selecting to View in Dipity, allows you to send cool articles you see in the timeline to friends via several types of social media like Twitter, Facebook, StumbleUpon, Digg, and MySpace.

Select the S.C. History Topics tab to access several Topics Guides we have created to help you discover the types of great articles, images, and other content on a variety of South Carolina-related topics. We will continue to add topics to the Topics Guide. So far, there are topics guides on:

  • African-Americans
  • Civil War
  • Commerce & Industry
  • Education
  • Entertainment & Leisure
  • Reconstruction
  • Sumter County Community History

A View of the Commerce & Industry Topics Guide in the SCDNP LibGuide

You can also access an updated List of the Historical S.C. Newspaper Titles we have digitized as part of the National Digital Newspaper Program and Chronicling America, and Get Some Helpful Tips for Successful Searching Chronicling America.

There are plenty of Comment Buttons throughout the LibGuide. Please give us some feedback and let us know what you think! For more information on the project, visit our recently redesigned SCDNP website.

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Mama Don’t Dance and Your Daddy Don’t Rock N’ Roll

I happened across several amusing articles in Chronicling America, on the sins of dancing, in 19th century historical South Carolina newspapers. Interestingly, each of these articles was published in the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.), in upstate South Carolina over a 20 year span of time. These articles, many of which were written by clergymen who argue so adamantly against dancing, are indicative of the increasingly strict moral codes that took hold during the Victorian period. Take a look!

Click here to read this article in the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.), August 11, 1898

“Young people begin with what is least objectionable, and they go on, step by step, following the fashion, until modesty is shamed and virtue exposed…It is a shame, so I have heard, to speak of the things done in the more fashionable forms of the dance.” Reverend R. G. Porter in 1898

Click here to read this article in the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.), May 27, 1880

An 1880 article states “the mere act of dancing is nothing; there may be little or no harm in the old fashioned cotillion in a private house with reasonable hours; what [we] condemn is ‘lascivious dancing.’”

Click here to read this article in the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.), July 12, 1877

A Reverend W.W. Sanders lectured one evening in 1877 on the subject. He expounds that “the enjoyment of the dance grows out of the fact that the parties are male and female and there lies the danger…wicked thoughts and passions which have been aroused, though concealed, burn in the heart like a smothered fire.”

In response to Reverend Sanders’ evening lecture on the arguments against the practice of dancing (the above article), cooler heads prevail in an article published on the next page of that issue (the article below).

Click here to read this article in the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.), July 12, 1877

“There is during dancing a flow of soul and enjoyment which drives away impure thoughts…We do not say it is right, but we do not believe it is wrong.”

Click here to read this article in the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.), May 15, 1879

 A religious debate on dancing between a Dr. Adger and a Dr. Dabney takes place in this 1879 article. One feverishly remonstrates the reader with a lengthy list of sinful indulgences as “theatre going, card playing, novel reading…dinner parties, big suppers, fashionable dress and equipage, and the wearing of a gold watch, or diamond ring.” He continues, “no one systematically reads the average novelette of the day and keeps either integrity or virtue, and there are a million men and women in the United States reading themselves into hell.” But, he digresses…

Click here to read this article in the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.), September 7, 1882

Professor J.P. Welch, a dancing instructor, spoke earnestly on the subject in 1882. “I have no hesitation that I attribute much of the vice and immorality now prevailing to the insidious influence of the waltz. In the old time a gentleman merely touched a lady’s waist…now he throws his arm clear around her form, pulls her closely to him, as though fearful of losing her…and in a word hugs her. I have [even] seen kisses exchanged amid the whirl of the maddening waltz.”

I performed a search for dancing in our own South Carolina newspapers, and did not try to search the term “dancing” in “All States” in the Historic American Newspapers in Chronicling America. Try it yourself. It would be interesting to note where these strict codes of morality on dancing sprung up around the country during the Victorian period. Let us know if you find anything good!

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The colorful history of Glenn Springs, South Carolina, 19th century healing springs and summer resort

A circa 1895 ad for the Glenn Springs Hotel, The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.)

Passing through the hamlet of Glenn Springs in rural Spartanburg, S.C., today, few would suppose that this remote crossroads was once a thriving hotspot of the summer season in 19th century South Carolina. From 1825 when John B. Glenn opened an “inn for the traveling public” beside the healing sulphur springs, until the early decades of the 20th century, Glenn Springs was a popular and bustling summer playground for generations of affluent South Carolinians. In its heyday, clientele also came from as far afield as Maryland, Texas, Michigan, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C.

In 1838, the Glenn Springs Stock Company built a grand new hotel and spa, described as the “ideal spot for health or pleasure seekers.” Sparing no expense, the hotel was extravagantly decorated with the finest furnishings from New York and Philadelphia, landscaped gardens, a ballroom, the best chefs, and tables supplied with the best of everything!

A circa 1894 ad for Glenn Springs Hotel and Glenn Springs Mineral Water, in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.), June 27, 1894

Many people came to Glenn Springs to partake of the healing spring waters. Glenn Springs Water claimed to cure an impressive list of maladies, such as “general debility, torpor of the liver, dyspepsia, liver complaints, female complaints, malarial diseases, jaundice, hemorroids, and rheumatism.”

Survivors of the Mexican War, “heroes of Monterey and Resaca de la Palma,” came in 1847 to recover from wounds and the hardships of war. During their stay, the soldiers were doted on by female visitors and “any civilian was thrown over mercilessly to give a dance to one of the Mexican Volunteers.”

In 1870, the Glenn Springs Hotel boasted private summer cottages, a bowling alley, a billiard saloon, croquet grounds, and a fancy ballroom. Stagecoaches ran from Spartanburg daily. An ad in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.) touted that “this delightful Watering Place is unsurpassed by any in the South.” Many visitors spent entire summers there. A visitor from Columbia’s The daily phoenix newspaper described his stay in 1874: “a warm reception, a cool drink of water, a good cup of tea, and pleasant chats with old friends prepared me for me couch, and I slept like a top.” He noted that the hotel had changed little since his last visit in 1861, and the hotel’s success was measured “by those solid comforts and varied attractions, which are as equally necessary as the superb water itself, to make it a summer resort.”

In addition to taking in the mineral springs in the morning and evening, guests could partake in a variety of amusements, such as a ten pin alley, cards, strolls along the grounds, and dances. Calico balls were held in summer; one in 1874 sponsored by the Ladies’ Monumental Association raised 125 dollars for a Civil War monument to honor veterans of the recent war.

In the 1890s, the entrepreneurs at Glenn Springs built a bottling house and shipped Glenn Springs Water all over the country. By the end of the 19th century, they were also selling ginger ale made from Glenn Springs Water.

“By 1896, hotel keepers proudly advertised piazzas that stretched 580 feet across the front of the immense hotel, an Italian band, and two daily trains running from nearby Spartanburg. A store, post office, a male academy, and Episcopal and Presbyterian churches, grew up around the resort.

A 1901 article, “Doings at Glenn Springs” promised that this season would “be one of the largest attended and most enjoyable for years.” A visitor described the weekly dance as the “crowning feature of the week’s gaities.” One evening, “couples formed outside of the ballroom and marched in to the stirring strains of the Chinese Wedding March, rendered by the excellent Italian band of Washington, D.C.” At one dance that year, a merry party of revelers returned from a dance at 2 a.m. in the morning, cheering

“Glenn Springs! Glenn Springs!

Rah! Rah! Rah!

Water Soakers! Water Soakers!

Siss! Boom! Bah!”

Hotel keepers kept up with the times in Glenn Springs. In 1902, electric lights and electricity were installed.  One ad notes that “at the request of any guests, electric fans would be put in bedrooms.” A 1914 Glenn Springs Hotel ad pointed out that “our Automobile Passenger Bus with Pneumatic Tires meets trains at Spartanburg.”

Click here to read this article, "Glenn Springs, Its History from its Discovery, with Personal Sketches of its Habitues," published May 7, 1890 in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.)

A full page article titled “Glenn Springs: Its History from its Discovery, with Personal Sketches of its Habitues,” published May 7, 1890, in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.), presents many more details in an interesting portrait of Glenn Springs.

Around World War One, it seems that the hotel’s popularity began to wane. The advent of the automobile and improved roads are plausible factors leading to the demise of the hotel. The main hotel burned to the ground in 1941, after slipping into disrepair over many years.

Calvary Episcopal Church in Glenn Springs, as it looks today. The first Episcopal Church was built in 1850. The current church was rebuilt in 1897.

Today, Glenn Springs is a small unincorporated community of about 20 extant structures and structural ruins. In 1982, it was designated as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places. Far off the beaten path, Glenn Springs has maintained its historic integrity, has restored several of its historic residences and two churches, and has no discernible modern development.

Circa 1900 Glenn Springs Post Office, as it looks today.

 

Circa 1885, Cates' Store, as it looks today.

Several buildings and ruins lie in overgrown woods. Visitors can take a great hike through these woods on the newly developed 7 mile Glenn Springs Passage of the Palmetto Trail, and see some of the ruins of this once “queen of the southern summer resorts.”

Glenn Springs appears in historic South Carolina newspapers repeatedly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Many additional details and events about Glenn Springs were not included here. Search for “Glenn Springs” or “Glenn Springs Hotel” yourself in Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers, and see what you turn up!

Illustrations
1. A circa 1895 ad for the Glenn Springs Hotel, The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.), July 31, 1895, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067846/1895-07-31/ed-1/seq-7/.
2. A circa 1894 ad for Glenn Springs Hotel and Glenn Springs Mineral Water, in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.), June 27, 1894,  http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067846/1894-06-27/ed-1/seq-10/
3. New Cottage on North Side of Hotel, illustration from “Glenn Springs: Its History from its Discovery, with Personal Sketches of its Habitues,” published May 7, 1890, in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.),  http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067846/1890-05-07/ed-1/seq-3/.
4. Episcopal Church of Glenn Spring, illustration from “Glenn Springs: Its History from its Discovery, with Personal Sketches of its Habitues,” published May 7, 1890, in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.),  http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067846/1890-05-07/ed-1/seq-3/.
5. “Glenn Springs: Its History from its Discovery, with Personal Sketches of its Habitues,” published May 7, 1890, in The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.),  http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067846/1890-05-07/ed-1/seq-3/.
6. Calvary Episcopal Church in Glenn Springs, as it looks today. Photo taken by the author.
7. Circa 1900 Glenn Springs Post Office, as it looks today. Photo taken by the author.
8. Circa 1885, Cates’ Store, as it looks today. Photo taken by the author.
Other Sources
1. Glenn Springs advertisement, The daily phoenix (Columbia, S.C.), June 30, 1870, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84027008/1870-06-30/ed-1/seq-1/.
2. “Correspondence of the Phoenix, at Glenn Springs,” The daily phoenix (Columbia, S.C.), August 16, 1874,  http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84027008/1874-08-16/ed-1/seq-2/.
3. “Doings at Glenn Springs,” The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.), July 24, 1901, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067846/1901-07-24/ed-1/seq-3/ .
4. Glenn Springs Ginger Ale advertisement, The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.), January 28, 1903,  http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067846/1903-01-28/ed-1/seq-7/.
5. Glenn Springs Hotel advertisement, The Anderson daily intelligencer (Anderson, S.C.), September 16, 1914, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067669/1914-09-16/ed-1/seq-6/ .
6. Glenn Springs Historic District, National Register Properties in South Carolina, South Carolina Dept. of Archives and History, http://www.nationalregister.sc.gov/spartanburg/S10817742033/index.htm.
7. Glenn Springs Historic District National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, October 5, 1982, http://www.nationalregister.sc.gov/spartanburg/S10817742033/S10817742033.pdf.
8. Glenn Springs Passage of the Palmetto Trail brochure, The Palmetto Conservation, http://www.pd-go.com/files/upload-3035.pdf.
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Helpful Tips for Researching in Chronicling America

A view of the Chronicling America homepage

The Library of Congress recently launched a new Chronicling America home page, with several improvements and new features. With this great new site redesign, I thought it might be helpful to point out some features that will improve your searching experience in Chronicling America.


Searching Chronicling America

A view of the simple search on the Chronicling America homepage

Did you know that you can now perform a simple search right from the homepage? You can still search by All States or one state only, choose the years you wish to search and enter your search terms in a simple search box. This facilitates quick and easy searching.


A view of the Advanced Search box

You can perform more Advanced Searching by clicking the Advanced Search tab on the homepage. Refine your search by specifying criteria such as State, Newspaper Title, Year or Date Range, and enter search terms in one of four different search boxes, to retrieve good results. The two search strategies in which I have found the most success are the With the Phrase…, and With Words…within (5 or 10 words) Proximity of One Another.

Search newspaper pages to retrieve article level information on:

  • particular people, proper names, family names, and businesses
  • particular cities, towns, and communities
  • specific historical events and general news of the time
  • illustrations, advertisements, cartoons, and photos
  • and a vast array of topics like social issues, war, crime, technology and progress, education, labor, fashion, material culture, community history, etc.

When selecting search terms remember to:

  • use historically used terms rather than the modern terms used today, such as the Great War instead of World War One as it is called today
  • try variations on spelling
  • enter words in order they are most likely to occur

For more help on Searching, visit General Searching in Chronicling America.

 

Viewing Search Results

A view of a Search Results page

When you perform a search, the search results page will open and display the newspaper images along with a link below the image which provides info about the newspaper. Your search terms will be high-lighted in pink as a guide to where you should look for your content on the page when you open it. You have the option to re-sort your results with the Sort By: Relevance, State, Title, and Date.

Viewing a newspaper page in Search Results

Click on either newspaper image, or its link below, in order to open and read that newspaper page. When viewing a newspaper page, there is a lot of information at your fingertips. The About link provides more information about that newspaper title. You can navigate forward and backward between PAGES and ISSUES with the blue arrows. You can zoom in and out of the page with the plus (+) and minus (-) signs located in the black viewing box left of the image.

Toggle icon

My favorite new feature is the toggle full page button which increases the viewing space on your computer screen. This makes the newspaper image easier to read and is conducive to easier newspaper browsing. With the full screen option, you can use your mouse to left click and dial to zoom in and out of the page very easily. You can stay in toggle view to move back and forth between pages and issues.

PDF link

The easiest way to download an image is to select the PDF link. Under File, select Save Page As, name file, and save as an Adobe Acrobat document. You may have to get the free download Adobe Reader to read these files on your computer, http://get.adobe.com/reader. PDFs provide good quality copies, are easy to read, and are easy to zoom in and out for better viewing.

Click Image icon

The Clip Image feature is also a useful tool. If you want to print or download part of a page, zoom in to that area of the page, and select Clip Image. You then have the option to Print or Download this image. If you don’t zoom in, the whole page will be printed or downloaded.

Reset View icon

The Reset View icon allows you to reset the page view to its original setting, if you have been zooming in and out of a page and want to return to the way it originally appeared in the viewing box. It is located in the row of icons for Zoom In, Zoom Out, Reset View, and Toggle Full Page View, in the black area of the page viewer.

Using the Persistent Link, provided below every newspaper image, will always take you back to that page. Saving this link in a Word document is a very good idea if you wish to return to content you’ve found in Chronicling America. This link should be used if a citation is necessary.

You can now see the current number of newspaper pages available in Chronicling America with the Pages Available ticker in the upper left of the home page. As of today, there are 3,999,267 Pages Available. This number will continue to grow as more content is added to the site.

 

Exploring Newspapers in Chronicling America

List of Historic South Carolina Newspapers in Chronicling America

The All Digitized Newspaper 1860-1922 tab links to lists of newspaper titles currently available by State in Chronicling America. You can also choose to Show All Digitized Papers 1860-1922 which will list content from all states participating in Chronicling America.

Choose the State in which you are interested. For example, select South Carolina from the drop down list of States, and a list will be displayed of historic South Carolina newspapers in Chronicling America. Keep in mind that this list will be continually updated, as Library of Congress adds more content to Chronicling America. This is a great place to begin browsing newspapers. You can view the Browse Issues calendar, look at the Earliest Issue to Latest Issues, and view a wealth of information about the newspaper title with the More Info link.

A view of 100 Years Ago Today

The centerpiece of the new home page, 100 Years Ago Today, displays century-old newspapers from across the U.S. Use the arrows on either side of the window to scroll back and forth and view issues. To read a newspaper, click on a newspaper image or its link below.

Click Here to see Historic Newspaper Images in Flickr

Historic Newspapers on Flickr shares 400 cool illustrations excerpted from the pages of Chronicling America newspapers, which is another fun way to browse Chronicling America content. Clicking on the image will open up the newspaper page in which it was found.

The Library of Congress staff continues to collect articles for your reading pleasure in Recommended Topics. There are now over 85 topics to browse which are a great way to delve into newspaper content and discover the amazing  history to be found in Chronicling America. Some fantastic new topics are the Ballet Russes (1910-1916), Bloomer Girls Women’s baseball (1897-1909), Chicago Black Sox Baseball Scandal (1919-1921) and Houdini (1906-1919).

As always, we are interested in hearing from you. Let us know what features you have found most useful when searching in Chronicling America! What interesting articles have you discovered? Have you found what you are looking for in Chronicling America? Have you had success or need a little help? Have any suggestions? Until next time, Happy Newspaper Searching.

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Professor Lowe’s 1861 Balloon Voyage to Union, S.C.

The Enterprise Balloon that Thaddeus Lowe flew from Cincinnati to Union, S.C. on April 20, 1861

Eight days after the first shots of the Civil War were fired, Professor Thaddeus Lowe, a self taught scientist conducting ground breaking work in the field of aeronautics, embarked on a 500 mile hot air balloon voyage from Cincinnati, Ohio. His original plan was to reach Washington, D.C. to test the balloon’s ability for overland flight, and to eventually attempt flight across the Atlantic Ocean, but air currents altered his course and he landed on a plantation outside Union, South Carolina. Lowe’s journey, 150 years ago, through the night above the Ohio River Valley, the Cumberlands, the Alleghenies and across the southern wilderness of the Blue Ridge mountains seems lifted from the fantastical pages of a Jules Verne novel. Below is a contemporary article on Lowe’s flight, found in a historic South Carolina newspaper recently digitized and made available in Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers.

Click here to read the rest of the article in the Keowee courier, May 25, 1861 issue.

Lowe wrote an account of his adventure on his balloon, the Enterprise, shared in newspapers across the country. The Keowee courier, a newspaper published in a town about 75 miles distant from Union, printed this colorful and detailed description, on May 25, 1861, of Lowe’s voyage. Having waited for over a month for optimal flying conditions, Lowe commenced preparing his balloon on April 19, 1861. Lowe left Cincinnati before dawn, at about 4 a.m., to great fanfare from the people of that city. With him were freshly printed newspapers, still wet with ink, discussing information about the very trip on which he was taking. Professor Lowe describes the ethereal beauty of his experience floating through the midnight air as the “moon and stars shone brightly.” He exclaimed that “the beauty of the scene baffles description; the moon had set, and the city of 170,000 sleepers, with its thousands of gas-lights glittering through the pitchy darkness was indescribably beautiful.” After 5 a.m. “the sun showed a golden rim above the horizon and soon sent a golden shower over the globe overhead.” The balloon continued to climb higher in the troposphere to an altitude of 11,000 feet, eventually ascending to estimated heights of 22,000 feet. That’s more than 4 miles above the earth! “Below and for miles around, was a barren wilderness, but at some distance I could see an occasional farmhouse.” He descended and sang out to men working in a field, asking “What state is this?” The Virginians never thought to look up from whence the mysterious voice came, certainly the idea of a voice originating from above their heads being inconceivable during this early period in aeronautical experimentation. Lowe continued on to parts of western South Carolina, where he attempted to land his balloon, but local inhabitants insisted that he continue with his “hellish contrivance” and land elsewhere.

Click here to read the rest of the article in the Keowee courier, May 25, 1861 issue.

Deciding that he must land soon, he neared the plantation of Kelton in rural Union County, South Carolina. “I heard many discharges of muskets. Not knowing, but being apprehensive that the globe was the object of firing, I prepared for making signals, when I should again near the earth.” Professor Lowe, dressed in his finest evening wear, descended to the ground with hat in hand and valve rope in the other. The Enterprise struck terror in the earthlings. Old folks prayed, people scattered in all directions, and cowered behind a log hut nearby. A 6 foot tall young woman assisted Professor Lowe in securing the balloon. “Men arrived with muskets, threatening destruction to the ‘devil’ that could travel through the air…but the tall woman assured [him] there was no danger, for all the men then in the neighborhood were cowards, the brave ones having gone to the wars.” Lowe was taken into town by wagon where a hotel keeper recognized him as a distinguished scientist whom he had seen the year previous on his travels north. The local newspaper editor corroborated the far-fetched story, avowing that the damp recently printed newspapers Lowe had brought with him were real. Amid cries of “tar and feather the Yankee,” Lowe was taken on to Columbia where professors at the University of South Carolina attested to the verity of his tale, being familiar with the various scientific instruments he brought along on his flight. Treated as a celebrity, save for a few scowls and threats by newly minted Confederates, he was graciously sent north on the train with all of his equipment and a passport granted by Columbia’s mayor to see Lowe safely through the Confederate States.

Lowe's Telegram to President Lincoln from his Balloon, June 16, 1861

When Lowe arrived in Washington, D.C., he decided to offer his services to the U.S. Government, persuading them that the use of his balloons for reconnaissance during the recent conflict would be beneficial to the Union Army. Lowe sent a telegram (left) to President Lincoln, from 500 feet in the air in the Enterprise, during a demonstration on the grounds of what is now the National Mall in D.C. Lincoln was duly impressed and created the U.S. Army Civilian Balloon Corps in June 1861. Thaddeus Lowe conducted reconnaissance at the Battles of Bull Run, Seven Pines, Chancellorsville, Gaines Mill, Fredericksburg and other battles during the war. His aeronautical work serving the Union Army in the 1860s laid the foundations of the modern Air Force. The Balloon Corps served the Union for two years from 1861 to 1863, when Lowe resigned his post.

The national republican, June 21, 1861 Click here to read the article in Chronicling America

There is more content to be found in Chronicling America relating to Thaddeus Lowe (1832-1913) including experiments prior to 1861, his reconnaissance work serving the Union Army (example to the right), renting his balloon out for weddings in the sky after the Civil War, and his later projects such as developing the Pasadena railway in California. If you would like to search for yourself, go to the Search Pages and try searching variations such as Professor Lowe, Thaddeus Lowe, spelling the name Low without an e, and T. S. C. Lowe, balloon, Balloon Corps, etc. You can try searching by the names of his Balloons as well: Enterprise, Intrepid, City of New York, Eagle, Washington, Great Western, and the Constitution. Also, try searching All States and All Dates to see coverage by newspapers across the United States. Lowe’s life work falls neatly within the date parameters of Chronicling America (1860-1922).

This week, the National Air and Space Museum is commemorating Lowe’s June 18, 1861 balloon exhibition on what is now the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Check out the video, in which Curator Tom Crouch describes Lowe’s contribution to aeronautics and its use in military operations, http://www.nasm.si.edu/events/civilwar/. Also, the Air & Space Museum will be showing a film at their IMAX theater June 17, 2011, which will be available online as a live webcast at 7:00 p.m, http://www.nasm.si.edu/events/eventDetail.cfm?eventID=2851.

 

References

1. The Enterprise Balloon that Thaddeus Lowe flew from Cincinnati to Union, S.C. on April 19, 1861, courtesy of http://www.qwiki.com/q/#!/Union_Army_Balloon_Corps.

2. Keowee Courier, May 25, 1861, from Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers.

3. Keowee Courier, May 25, 1861, from Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers.

4. Lowe’s Telegram to President Lincoln from his Balloon, June 16, 1861. courtesy of American Memory at the Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/P?mal:5:./temp/~ammem_Hf5Y::.

5. The national republican, June 21, 1861, from Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers.

Further reading: Block, E. B. (1966). Above the Civil War: the Story of Thaddeus Lowe, Balloonist, Inventor, Railway Builder. Howell-North Books, Berkeley, California.

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But wait, there’s more! More historic S.C. newspapers added to Chronicling America!

This week, the Library of Congress added three more historic South Carolina newspaper titles, and 30,000 newspaper pages, into Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. These are the Keowee courier (Pickens, S.C.) (1861-1900 now available), the Orangeburg news, (Orangeburg, S.C.) and its five succeeding titles (1867-1911 now available), and The intelligencer (Anderson, S.C.) (1915-1916 now available). Also, more content has been added to the Anderson intelligencer (Anderson, S.C.) (1860-1906 now available) and The watchman and southron (Sumter, S.C.) (1881-1922 now available). To see the list of S.C. newspapers that are now available in Chronicling America, click on the image below.

List of S.C. Newspapers Now Available in Chronicling America. Click here to view the list.

To date, 64,000 S.C. newspaper images, digitized by the University of South Carolina, have been approved and uploaded by the Library of Congress into Chronicling America. 39,000 newspaper pages of the grant project are still in the production pipeline. In the last few months, we have sent 28,000 images to the Library of Congress, who is in the process of approving and ingesting these images in the next several months. We will send one last batch, of 11,000 images, to the Library of Congress at the end of May. By September, we anticipate that a total of 103,000 newspaper pages will be available in Chronicling America.

Chronicling America has now ingested an astonishing 3.7 million searchable historic newspaper images, from more than 500 newspaper titles across 22 states and the District of Columbia. So, don’t forget that you can search historic newspaper content from states other than South Carolina.

We’d love to get your feedback on how you have been using Chronicling America, any success in your searching for historic articles, and any suggestions you may have to improve your experience with Chronicling America! You can leave comments here on the blog or email us at DIGITAL1@mailbox.sc.edu. We appreciate your input!

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Smoke, Smoke, Smoke that Cigarette!

This fun cigarette advertising campaign for Sovereign Cigarettes, which personified a cigarette as a southern child of good breeding and manners, appeared in the Watchman and Southron (Sumter, S.C.) newspaper in January and February 1917. He’s a darling little fellow, with matchsticks for arms and legs and a flame capping his crown, who is proud to point out that his mother was from Virginia and his father an aristocrat from the Carolinas. He appears first as a baby being washed by his nurse, then playing with tumbling blocks, learning to spell, and lastly, being carried by his friends on their shoulders who clearly seem to be singing “For he’s a jolly good fellow!” You can click on each image to see the ads as they appear in Chronicling America.

“My folks down South keep telling me: ‘Be sweet, clean, and pure.’”

“My isn’t there a lot to learn? And the Governor keeps saying you can’t get it all out of books.”

“So a clean sweet wholesome cigarette makes heaps of friends down South.”

“I’ve never lied to my friends, nor cheated them, nor double-crossed them…They know me by right name-Sovereign! A true gentleman of the South, born and bred.”

Here are some more fun ones…

I, a Southern Gentleman am Named

A Scholar and A Gentleman

A Southern Gentleman Makes a New Friend

Merit Wins Folks, Merit Wins Every Time

The American Tobacco Company was founded in Durham, N.C. by J.B. Duke in 1879, which consolidated in 1890 and was known as the “Tobacco Trust.” Subject to the Sherman Antitrust Law of 1890, the American Tobacco Company was indicted in 1907 and in 1911, was ordered to break its monopoly on the cigarette industry and to dissolve into several companies, the same day as the Standard Oil Company was forced to do the same. These Sovereign Cigarettes ads emerged a few years after the break-up of this giant tobacco monopoly.

There are several more Sovereign Cigarette ads in Chronicling America. To find them, go to http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/beta/ and search “sovereign cigarettes.”

 

 

 

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The 1903 Tillman-Gonzales Affair: South Carolina’s “Crime of the Century”

Monument to N. G. Gonzales

In the shadow of the South Carolina State House stands a monument. Most that pass it each day on this busy street corner in Columbia are perhaps unaware for whom the monument was erected more than a century ago or that this monument is the final chapter to a long running feud between two men fueled by their polarizing political ideologies and personalities. Narciso Gener Gonzales, S.C.’s most celebrated newspaper editor at the turn of the 20th century, was shot  in broad daylight and killed by Lt. Governor James H. Tillman on the afternoon of January 15, 1903. Deemed the “Crime of the Century” in S.C., the trial received national news coverage, and is one of the most interesting episodes in Columbia, South Carolina history.

The two men, Gonzales and Tillman, represented two political camps that had wrestled for power for almost three decades in S.C. The son of the Cuban Revolutionary and Confederate officer Ambrosio Gonzales and Harriet Rutledge Elliott, a member of S.C.’s planter class, Gonzales identified politically and socially with the Bourbons, elites who had ruled S.C. prior to the Civil War. When Reconstruction ended with the election of the Bourbon party’s General Wade Hampton III in 1876 as governor and U.S. Senator in 1879, a new political party arose when middle class white voters sought a previously unattainable seat at the political table. This new party, called the Farmer’s movement or Agrarian revolt, elected Benjamin “Pitchfork” Tillman governor in 189­0 and U.S. Senator in 1895. James H. Tillman, a news reporter and later a politician himself, was Ben Tillman’s nephew.

N. G. Gonzales

N.G. Gonzales, with his two brothers, founded The State newspaper in Columbia in 1891, after having worked many years as a correspondent to the Charleston News and Courier and other S.C. papers. The State quickly gained recognition as a quality news source and was one of the largest newspapers in S.C. by the turn of the 20th century. Gonzales was known for his acerbic wit and brilliant rhetoric, but he also gained a reputation for an overly earnest self-righteousness in his writings. His infamous editorials were often characterized as bombastic and scathing indictments of South Carolina politicians serving in Congress and at the State House. A long running political badinage occurred for years between Ben Tillman and N. G. Gonzales over major issues of the day. Ben Tillman described The State as “that rattlesnake down on Main Street” and claimed that “Gonzales has dished out more malice and hatred than any other man in the State except [of course] myself.”[1] He also magnanimously replied once that “he had always given Gonzales credit for being honest and straightforward and a man with backbone and principle, though he is my enemy.”[2] Gonzales published a recurring biblical themed column which satirized Tillman’s governance in the Old Testament prosaic character of Benjamin the Tillmanite. He repeatedly described Tillman with unkind adjectives like “blackguard, blatherskite, buffoon, and an intemperate demagogic accident” and often blithely added that “those who lived by the pitchfork would fall under the harrow.”[3]

James H. Tillman

When Jim Tillman came on the political scene, Gonzales was equally ungenerous with the nephew of his political rival, Ben Tillman. Jim Tillman referred to Gonzales as “that Spaniard” and “the Cuban pony” and Gonzales in turn labeled him as “Tillman the Little” and lambasted Tillman for his reputation as a “liar, defaulter, gambler, and drunkard.”[4] Years of acrimony between the two culminated around 1902. After a brawl on the floor of the U.S. Senate between Uncle Ben Tillman and fellow S.C. Senator John McLaurin, President Teddy Roosevelt slighted Ben Tillman and in turn nephew Jim Tillman withdrew an official invitation to President Roosevelt on a planned visit to the state, later smoothed over by Gonzales’ younger brother Willie.  This same year, Lt. Gov. Tillman while presiding over the Senate, overruled a motion in the Senate as non-debatable. Some requested he seek a higher opinion from Congressional leaders who advised that he rescind his decision. Tillman, instead, lied and reported that the higher opinion had sustained his original ruling. Outraged, Gonzales castigated Tillman in The State pointing to this incident as yet another example of Tillman’s low character when he ran for governor that year. Jim Tillman lost the gubernatorial race, handily, in the fall of 1902.

On a brisk January 15, 1903, Gonzales strode up Main Street from his office heading home for lunch. As he approached the corner of Main and Gervais Streets, across the street from the SC State House, he happened to encounter his political rival, James H. Tillman who was serving his last few days in office as Lieutenant Governor of S.C. The Lt. Governor and a few of his colleagues in the General Assembly were also going to lunch while the Senate recessed. As Gonzales passed the three men, without apparent provocation from eyewitnesses, Tillman withdrew a Luger pistol and shot Gonzales once in the belly. Gonzales fell to the ground and retorted “Shoot me again, you coward.” Gonzales perished from effects of the gunshot wound four days later.

Read the entire article here from the Watchman and Southron, September 30, 1903

Because Gonzales was so admired in Columbia, Tillman sympathizers claimed he wouldn’t get a fair trial in Columbia and  pulled strings to get the trial moved across the river to Lexington County. The trial took place in September and October of 1903. William Thurmond, whose son would become the future S.C. governor and one of the longest serving U.S. Senators in history, served as the state solicitor for the prosecution. Papers all over the country covered the Tillman trial in 1903, partly because Gonzales was so well-known but also because many journalists and editors were great admirers of Gonzales. The trial also raised an issue about freedom of the press and the safety of journalists, inferring that an acquittal in this case might portend open season on journalists.

Read the article in the Watchman and Southron, September 30, 1903

The proceedings of the case were followed closely by several national papers, as well as local papers like Sumter’s Watchman and Southron, a newspaper with clear sympathies for Gonzales. In the article to the left, the reporter printed an impassioned preamble to the trial written by John  Marshall of the News and Courier, which raised broader issues of the state of lawlessness and justice in S.C. at the time. “There are not found wanting who declare that verdicts in murder trials in South Carolina are a by-word and a laughing stock. It would be futile to  deny these things…it is their notorious verity that makes the present emergency so momentous. It is because they are true that the eyes of men are so riveted so keenly upon this Court, this jury, these lawyers, this trial. Therefore, is James H. Tillman guilty or not guilty? What say you?”

Read this article from the Watchman and Southron, October 7, 1903

The proceedings of the trial are outlined in this article, with descriptions of the examination and cross-examination of witnesses for the prosecution including Ambrose Gonzales, N.G.’s brother and business partner, two young boys who identified Tillman on the street the day of the shooting, members of legislature, the doctors who treated the dying Gonzales, James Hoyt who was Gonzales assistant editor and friend, and W.F. Steiglitz, a gunsmith who repaired the weapon used in the killing the day prior to the incident. Ambrose Gonzales was asked to read five months of editorials written by N.G. Gonzales during 1902 to show the “white-hot” nature of Gonzales’ editorials toward the defendant. The reporter concluded that “Traditions are to be reckoned with…the men who are to determine whether James H. Tillman is a murderer are Southern men [with] Southern mental processes. Their estimation of provocation is such as their neighbors hold now [and] their fathers before them. They have been taught that there are words more stinging than blows-that a man has to take good heed of his facts before he is justified in calling another a cur, or a coward, or a thief, or liar.” He added then “that it was essential for the State’s estimation that the men who are to pass in judgment upon Mr. Tillman’s deed should not be left under the impression that there was no more in the language applied to him by Mr. Gonzales than the words that blistered and burned.” In other words, that there was truth in Gonzales’ claims against Tillman.

Read this article from the Watchman and Southron, October 7, 1903

The trial at this point became heated. Testimony given by witnesses stated Gonzales was himself unarmed on the fateful day. Two witnesses friendly to Tillman, testified to the premeditated nature of the killing, in which Tillman had stated to a Mr. Terrell editor of the Johnston Monitor that he intended to be a candidate for Governor and that he was going “to go down to Columbia and kill Mr. Gonzales.” When Terrell returned that he should fight him rather than kill him, Tillman stated that “he would shoot him down like a mad dog without giving him a show.” Dr. Adams testified that he witnessed an occasion when Tillman sat and listened as someone read one of Gonzales’ fiery editorials speaking of Tillman’s conduct as “mock theatricals,” Tillman retorted that “Mr. Gonzales might call it what he wished but he [Tillman] would make it the God d–dest tragedy that ever happened in S.C.”

Read the article here in the Watchman and Southron, October 14, 1903

At this point, the State had rested and the Defense began its case. Jim Tillman took the stand and electrified the court room. “The nerves and brain of every man in sound or sight sprang to attention [when] the prisoner at the bar rose slowly to his great height, a little darker glow coming to his face, a little more set expression coming to his rugged features…striding forward deliberately to the clerk’s desk he took the oath and ascended the stand.” Tillman proceeded to give the history of his and Gonzales’ bitter relationship, beginning with his own forays into journalism, how he had been blackballed from admission to the prestigious South Carolina Club, how he had invited Gonzales to a dual over on one of the islands in the Savannah River to avoid the anti-dueling law in S.C., and various other grievances over the years.

Read this article here from the Watchman and Southron October 21, 1903

Outrageously, James H. Tillman was acquitted of the murder of N.G. Gonzales by the 12 man jury in Lexington County. The defense’s case that Gonzales’ ferocious indictments on Tillman’s character was just cause for the shooting seemed to resonate with many citizens. One can imagine the public outcry at the verdict by many of S.C.’s citizens who disagreed with such a verdict. Two such articles appeared in the October 21, 1903 issue of the Watchman and Southron, one an indignant letter to the editor by one W. McPheeters, and another titled “Out, damned spot!” by Dr. C. C. Brown. Dr. Brown sums the whole affair with these words. “And yet to go free, after all, is not much now! Ah, whither shall I free from hell. Myself am hell! The genius of history sits with his quill in a nerveless hand, and will write a true record at last and he will put the story down so that no man can challenge it.”

Gonzales’ funeral that year was the largest ever, second only to the recent burial of Wade Hampton the year prior, and the outpouring of his colleagues and friends resulted in the monument to his memory in 1905. In granite, the words are etched, “A great editor, an eminent citizen, an honest man….the measure of success is not what we get out of life but what we leave after it.” It has been rumored that the monument, which stands at Senate and Sumter Streets, stands not at the site where Gonzales was murdered, but was placed in the path James H. Tillman normally took on his walk home from the State House, so that he would have to see Gonzales’ monument as a constant reminder of his misdeeds. Tillman died eight years later in Asheville, N.C. in 1911, it seems much diminished socially, politically, and personally after this affair.

[1] Jones, L. P. (1973).  Stormy Petrel: N. G. Gonzales and His State. Columbia, S.C.: USC Press, Tri-centennial Studies, No. 8, p. 223.

[2] Jones, L. P. (1973).  Stormy Petrel: N. G. Gonzales and His State. Columbia, S.C.: USC Press, Tri-centennial Studies, No. 8, p. 229.

[3] Jones, L. P. (1973).  Stormy Petrel: N. G. Gonzales and His State. Columbia, S.C.: USC Press, Tri-centennial Studies, No. 8, p. 230.

[4] (2006). James H. Tillman. In Walter Edgar. Editor. South Carolina Encyclopedia (p.962-963). Columbia, S.C.: USC Press.

Photographs:

Gonzales monument. Photo taken by the author.

N.G. Gonzales. Courtesy of Google images, latinamericanstudies.org.

Jim Tillman. Courtesy of Google images, find-a-grave.com.

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A guide to navigating the Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers website

A View of the Chronicling America homepage

Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers is chock full of useful information to users wishing to search for newspapers and to learn more about the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP). In fact, I thought a proper explanation of how to navigate the site might be in order. In this post, I will provide an overview of the Chronicling America website, focusing on three main areas: the See All Available Newspapers page, the Search Newspaper Pages page, and the Search Newspaper Directory page.

The Library of Congress staff continues to work hard to improve the design and usability of Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Right now, researchers have the ability to search within the current version of which I will provide an overview here, and a beta version which is a  site redesign the Library of Congress staff is currently testing.

There are several links in the upper left corner of the current homepage, where one may find basic information about the program (About Chronicling America), which states are participating in Chronicling America (Awardees), and technical aspects of the program (Technical and API). Users can learn more about NEH, the funding body who, with the Library of Congress, has made this monumental program possible. The Working with Chronicling America box, at the bottom of the page, provides great links to:

See All Available Newspapers

A View of the See All Available Newspapers page

The See All Available Newspapers tab links to a page which provides the number of newspaper pages currently available on Chronicling America. As of now, there are 3,308,613 images available. The number of images continues to grow, as more newspapers are added or “ingested” into the newspaper database, so keep checking in on this page if you are interested to know how much has been added to the overall NDNP program.

The 23 states (of the 25 participating states) listed on this page display which of the newspapers from state programs are now available in Chronicling America. One can select the live link to each State at the top of the page, which will skip down to the table, to that State’s newspaper listings and what is currently available for newspaper titles by State. I find this page to be the easiest path to begin my search when I wish to browse a particular newspaper title. It provides live links to:

  • Newspaper titles, organized alphabetically with other papers in a State
  • to view the MARC catalog record for each newspaper by selecting its newspaper title  link from this table
  • the ability to Browse Issues and begin researching newspapers from this list
  • view the Earliest Issue and Latest Issue currently available for a newspaper
  • the More Info link which opens a page to an essay providing an overview and interesting information about each newspaper.

Keep in mind, this table is a work in progress and will be continually updated as more newspaper content is added.

To see the historic South Carolina newspaper titles selected for this grant cycle, go to http://sc.edu/library/digital/newspaper/title.html. All of the titles on this list will be ingested into Chronicling America and appear on the See All Available Newspapers page. We anticipate, and hope, that all will be ingested by the end of this summer.

Search Newspaper Pages

A View of the Search Newspapers Pages page

The Search Newspaper Pages tab in the upper left corner of the homepage and the View Newspapers box (in the center of the homepage) will open the same Search Newspapers page.

This search page allows users to refine their search by State, Newspaper Title, Year, Date Range, and Search Terms.

In the box on the upper left, one can choose to search All States, or select one state or more at a time from the drop down box. On the upper right, one can select All Newspapers or opt to select one Newspaper Title at a time per search without having to select the State in this search.

Under the Select a Year or Date Range, the user can do just that by either selecting a particular Year from a dropdown box, or by specifying a Date Range. By clicking within the date range boxes, a calendar opens in which one may select month and year from a dropdown box, and select the day by clicking on the day on the calendar. This will input that date into the appropriate date range box.

Users can search newspaper pages to retrieve article level information on:

  • particular people, proper names, family names, and businesses
  • particular cities, towns, and communities
  • specific historical events
  • general news of the time
  • unique passages of text
  • illustrations, advertisements, cartoons, and photos
  • and a vast array of topics like fashion, commercial products, patent medicines, transportation, legislation, crime and punishment, fraternal organizations, industry, technology, disease, etc.

The Enter Search boxes, where one enters the search terms of interest, provide four different ways to retrieve good results: With Any of the Words…, With All of the Words…, With the Phrase…, and With Words …within (5, 10, 50, or 100 words) Proximity of One Another. If one uses the latter search box, choosing the 5 or 10 words in proximity of one another will yield the best results.

When selecting search terms remember to:

  • try and use the historically used terms rather than the modern terms used today, such as the Great War instead of World War One as it is called today .
  • try variations on spelling, i.e. Freedmen’s Bureau and Freedman’s Bureau will retrieve very different results.
  • disregard case letters, the same results will be retrieved whether it is capitalized or not.
  • disregard articles such as a, an, and the.
  • place quotation marks around a phrase to get better results
  • enter words in order they are most likely to occur.

The Help tab, in the upper left of the homepage, offers in-depth searching tips to help in retrieving optimal results when searching the newspaper database, so I encourage you to visit that page.

Page Search Results

A View of the Page Results page

Once a search has been instituted, the retrieved results will open in a new page. The Page Search Results page will provide the number of retrieved results in the upper right corner, and will also display newspaper pages in Thumbnail View (default). One may also select to view results by List View, and sort results by State, Title, and Date. Keep in mind that the retrieved results will first be displayed with the most relevant results at the top of the results. One has the ability to go back and forward in the Results pages by selecting the Previous and Next buttons or going to any results page by entering a number in the Jump to Page box. The search terms that match the search will be highlighted in Pink on the Results Page Images.

To view a newspaper page, left click on the page image or select the issue information link below the newspaper image.

A View of the Image View in Page Results

In the new page, the Newspaper Title, Place of Publication, Date Range of the Newspaper Title, the Issue Date, and the Image Number appear in both the black banner and white banner above the Image View. Also, the Persistent Link which can be saved, and will always take you back to this page, is present. This link should be used if a citation is necessary.

All of the commands such as Zoom, Draw Zoom Box, Reset, move to Previous and Next Pages and Previous and Next Issues links are located above the newspaper image. One great feature is the Draw Zoom Box, which one selects then draws a box around the text one wishes to read, and that box zooms in to make that passage readable. The Reset button allows one to revert back to the original view size showing the whole newspaper page. One can also Zoom In and Zoom Out by selecting the + and – signs for zooming in and out. My favorite feature is a nifty Pan toggle button which one can select and drag the newspaper page around to enable reading content on the newspaper page. LC recently improved the view image page by placing the Zoom In and Out, Zoom Draw box, and Reset buttons at the top and the bottom of the View Page.

A View of the Browse Issues page

The View button allows one to see the OCR text, which is not perfect but can provide useful information. One can view the newspaper page as a PDF document which provides a clear image of that page, with the ability to zoom in and out easily, and save the Page in several formats.

The Browse Issues link is great. One can select this to see a calendar view of issues available by day of the month and by selecting Year from the Issues For dropdown box. The days of the month that have live links show the issues available for viewing. This page also provides the ability to Browse First Pages Only, Browse Issues, read the essay about the newspaper in More About This Newspaper, visit the Search Newspaper Directory information by choosing the About This Newspaper link. Those who want to view the MARC record, mostly librarians, can view that here as well.

Search Newspaper Directory

A View of the Find Information About Newspapers Box

The Chronicling America Newspaper Directory is an extensive directory that allows researchers to find out about particular historic newspapers and to learn whether a newspaper title is included in Chronicling America. This directory contains almost 140,000 separate historic American newspapers titles that were published dating from 1690 to the present. It also contains the most complete catalog information about each newspaper, including dates of publication, places of publication, associated newspaper titles such as those previous newspapers that preceded and those newspaper titles that continued a particular newspaper.

A View of Browse Newspaper Titles by Alphabet

The Search Newspaper Directory tab in the upper left corner of the homepage and the Find Information about Newspapers from 1690 to Today box (in the center right of the homepage) will open the same Search Newspaper Directory page. One can Browse the Directory by Newspaper Title by selecting a letter of the alphabet, as shown in the illustration above, then choosing the live link to the newspaper title of interest. This will open the directory page with the catalog record of that newspaper.

A View of the Search Newspaper Directory page

 

Selecting the Search Directory link, one can begin searching in the Newspaper Directory. Researchers have the ability to search by State, County, City, Date Range, Keywords, Frequency, Language, Ethnicity of the Publication, Labor Press, LCCN, and Material Type. The first four search criteria, State, County, City, Date Range, and Keywords will probably be used in this type of searching more often than the other criteria.

When a newspaper title search is performed, a new box will open showing a list of results of newspapers that meet the criteria searched. These newspaper titles have live links to open the catalog records for each newspaper, called the About this Newspaper Page.

 

 

A View of an About this Newspaper record

This page provides the following info:

  • Title
  • Place of Publication
  • Date Range
  • Geographic Coverage (i.e. City, County, State)
  • Publisher Name
  • Dates of Publication
  • Description
  • Frequency of Publication (i.e.Weekly)
  • Language
  • Subjects
  • Notes
  • LCCN (Library of Congress identification number for each paper)
  • OCLC (another id number assigned to each paper)
  • Holdings (live link to a list of libraries and other institutions who possess original copies and microfilm holdings of a title)

This information should be plenty to get you started on your newspaper searching. I hope that some of you find it to be helpful! Happy searching!

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“Chronicles of the Electric City” A brief history of the Anderson Intelligencer

Craig Keeney, Published Materials Cataloger at the South Caroliniana Library here at USC and one of our Principal Investigators of the SCDNP, has composed fascinating essays about each of the South Carolina newspapers digitized in Chronicling America.

These essays or “scope notes” may be accessed by a link titled More about this Newspaper, for each newspaper in Chronicling America.

The following is an essay Craig wrote for the history of The Anderson Intelligencer…

The Anderson Intelligencer (1860-1917), a weekly newspaper “devoted to politics, literature, news, morals, agriculture, science, and art,” reported on local, national, and statewide events for the residents of rural Anderson County, in the Upstate region of South Carolina, for over fifty years. The first issue appeared on Tuesday, August 14, 1860. In it, editors and publishers James A. Hoyt and John C.C. Featherstone declared that “in our prospectus we announced that we would conduct our paper independent of all parties, factions, or cliques…we are strictly states rights in our constructions of the Constitution,” at once a contradiction in terms and telling evidence of the ideological and political divisions between Northerners and Southerners in the tense years leading up to the Civil War.

Throughout its existence, the Anderson Intelligencer reflected on the economic and political forces transforming Anderson County. Articles titled “Grand ovation to Gov. Hampton!” (April 5, 1877) and “Our political deliverance” (April 12, 1877), both references to former Confederate Army General Wade Hampton, convey the triumphant mood of many white Carolinians with the return of the so-called Bourbons, or antebellum leaders, to political power in 1877. The later decades of the 19th century saw the citizens of Anderson County invest in and develop their energy infrastructure with such vigor as to earn the town of Anderson the approbation “Electric City.”

Several persons responsible for producing the newspaper played significant roles in the history of the Upstate region. James A. Hoyt, who edited the Anderson Intelligencer in 1860-77, served as chairman of the South Carolina Democratic Party Executive Committee, president of the South Carolina Baptist Convention, and a trustee of Furman University (a Baptist-affiliated college in Greenville, South Carolina). Hoyt’s successor, Edward Bobo Murray, served as chair of the Anderson Democratic Party (1878-90), president of the Western Carolina and North Georgia Railroad (1891-94), South Carolina Representative (1878-83), and as South Carolina Senator (1886-89). The Anderson Intelligencer adhered closely to the conservative political and social views of its editors. The paper staunchly supported the South Carolina Democratic Party, criticized the state’s dispensary system of liquor sales, and promoted temperance. Through several decades, it also regularly featured the humorous letters and reminiscences of a backwoodsman named Bill Arp, who in reality was Charles Henry Smith, a journalist for the Atlanta Constitution.

The Anderson Intelligencer changed titles and publication frequencies several times in the course of its existence. The publishers only suspended publication once, during the Civil War (Hoyt and Featherstone both served in the Confederate army). In January 1914, the publishers turned it into a daily newspaper called the Anderson Daily Intelligencer. They also issued a semiweekly edition for several years, beginning in March 1914. In May 1915, the titled was changed to the Intelligencer. In 1917, the paper had a circulation of 2,860, smaller than that of another weekly Anderson newspaper, the Daily Mail. The Intelligencer ceased publication sometime that year, for reasons unknown. The last available issue is from June 30, 1916.

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Breaking news! The Sumter Watchman and the Watchman and Southron are now available in Chronicling America

Breaking News! Two more newspaper titles, the Sumter watchman and the Watchman and southron, are now available online in Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Also, more Charleston daily news content is now online.

So far, 39,024 digitized S.C. newspaper images have been approved and uploaded by the Library of Congress into Chronicling America. We plan on reaching 100,000 total newspaper pages during this grant cycle. To browse these two new titles and to learn more about these newspapers, you may select the links below.

Sumter watchman. (Sumterville, S.C.) 1855-1881

The watchman and southron. (Sumter, S.C.) 1881-1930

The Charleston daily news. (Charleston, S.C.) 1865-1873

At this time, the following newspaper titles are now freely available in Chronicling America:

Newspaper Title Date Range of Title Dates Now Available in Chronicling America
The Anderson intelligencer. 1860-1914 1860-08-14 to 1896-01-29
The Charleston daily news. 1865-1873 1865-09-08 to 1873-04-05 (ALL)
The Columbia phoenix 1865 1865-03-21 to 1865-04-08 (ALL)
The Columbia phoenix 1865 1865-04-10 to 1865-05-13 (ALL)
The Columbia daily phoenix. 1865 1865-05-15 to 1865-07-29 (ALL)
The daily phoenix. 1865-1877 1865-07-13 to 1877-10-02 (ALL)
Tri-weekly phoenix. 1871-1875 1871-12-09 to 1875-05-18 (ALL)
The Sumter watchman. 1855-1881 1870-01-05 to 1872-12-25
The watchman and southron. 1881-1930 1881-08-02 to 1907-08-28

We will be sure to keep you posted on our progress as we continue to add new content to Chronicling America. Happy reading!

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One Hundred Years Hence: 1911′s futuristic vision of the year 2011

Here’s a fun futuristic article published in 1911, titled One Hundred Years Hence, imagining what life might be like in the year 2011.

The future is set on February 1, 2011, today’s date! You can click here to read the article in the March 2, 1911 issue of The Times and Democrat (Orangeburg, S.C.) in Chronicling America:Historic American Newspapers, or read it in its entirety below.

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Acting Bears, Sacred Bulls, Performing Dogs… the Big Top is Arriving Soon.

Here in 21st century Columbia, the circus will be passing through town soon.

Some of the earliest pictorial advertisements in post-bellum South Carolina newspapers are advertisements for the circus. Below are examples of fanciful circus advertisements printed in the Columbia Phoenix and Anderson Intelligencer in the 1860s and 1870s. I found these while searching “Circus” in South Carolina newspapers.

Chronicling America is a rich resource for those interested in American Circus history. Just a bit of background research produced some very interesting details about the people affiliated with these circus acts, which you can read below some of the images further down the page.

The advertisements included here, Mike Lipman’s Great Combination Show, Colonel C. T. Ames’ New Orleans  Circus and Menagerie, Lent’s Railroad Leviathon, and Dan Castello’s Great Show (all ads found in SC newspapers in Chronicling America) are but a few of the scores of independent troupes that passed through SC and performed in various towns in the 1860s and later.

You can search for circus ads yourself by visiting the Search Newspaper Pages page on Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. You have the ability to limit your search to SC papers only,  to search within one newspaper title, or to search in newspapers across the entire US. Don’t forget that you can limit your search by date as well.

The Daily Phoenix, circa 1867, ad for Mike Lipman’s Great Combination Show

The Daily Phoenix, circa 1873, circus ad for Lent’s Railroad Leviathon

Lewis B. Lent (1813-1887) who grew up with his father’s traveling menagerie is described as “an all around circus man and was considered to be the best general agent and router of his day” (http://www.circushistory.org/Olympians/OlympiansL1.htm). In the 1830s, Lent traveled up and down the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers by steamboat, and later  in 1843 was the first American circus act to perform in England. Lent’s Railroad Leviathon included acts such as the Hippozoonomadom which included a hippopatamus, Equescurriculum, the Seven Wonders of the World in a gas-lit city of tents, an army of horses, a cantonment of canvas, [in short] the globe in captivity” (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84027008/1873-10-11/ed-1/seq-4/).

The Anderson Intelligencer, circa 1869, ad for Col. C.T. Ames New Orleans Circus and Menagerie

Colonel Clark T. Ames (d. 1870) organized the Ames’ Southern Menagerie in 1866, and his New Orleans Circus and Menagerie in 1867. His show, described as “A Colossal Aggregation of Olympian Sports and Nature’s Wonders” boasted “a score of beautiful ladies, a legion of male artists, a duo of lion tamers, a most extensive menagerie of rare wild beasts of nearly every known species and of every geographical range from the frigid to the the torrid, a herd of trained horses, and clowns, musicians and comedians.” His wife, Eugenia De Lorme Ames, was part of the act, too, as a lion tamer. Sadly, one month after her July 1869 performance in Anderson, S.C. as advertised here, she was mauled  but not killed by one of her lions in a performance in Sunbury, Pennsylvania  (http://www.circushistory.org/Olympians/OlympiansD1.htm). Colonel Ames died a year later, in 1870, in Dawson, Georgia from a gun shot wound inflicted by drunk patrons trying to get into a show (http://www.circushistory.org/Olympians/OlympiansA.htm).

Anderson Intelligencer, circa 1866, ad for Dan Castello’s Great Show

Dan Castello (1834-1909) “showman, clown, leaper, and vaulter” joined the circus life in his youth around 1849. On one of his European tours, Charles Dickens watched his performance at the Alhambra in London and wrote that [Castello] “did not jump but flew” through the air, in reference to Castello’s ability as a vaulter. Castello was known for his “Batteau Leaps” described as “specialties of the show” in his advertisment. His best vault was over 16 horses, described as “leaving the batteau, he would shoot into the air to a height of about 20 feet as straight as an arrow, then by a very quick turn of the neck and bending of the knees he would turn a somersault in a twinkling and strike on his feet in an erect position” (http://www.circushistory.org/Olympians/OlympiansC1.htm). With his own show, Castello chartered a steamboat and traveled up and down the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, even following the Union Army down south during the late years of the Civil War. Shortly afterward, he passed through Anderson, S.C. in 1866, as evidenced by the advertisement above. He later completed the first coast to coast circus tour made by any American circus troupe in a single season.  Dan Castello was such a successful entrepeneur that the famous P.T. Barnum once said ” Give me Dan Castello and money enough to reach the first stop and I’ll come home with a fortune at end of the season [and] I don’t care if it rains every day.”

For a short history of the circus, read this Circopedia entry provided by the Circus Historical Socety, http://www.circopedia.org/index.php/Short_History_of_the_Circus.

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The new year brings changes!

The South Carolina Digital Newspaper Program Blog will be undergoing server changes in the upcoming weeks and may be unavailable for a period of time.  These changes will require the blog to have a different web url as well as a different rss feed.  If you are currently linked to the blog or if you are a subscriber to our feed, you will need to update that information once the blog goes live on another server.

We will update the new link to the blog on the SCDNP Home Page once the transition is complete.

Happy New Year everyone!

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"Come bring with a noise my merry merry boys the Christmas log to the firing…"

A search for “Christmas” brings up a lot of gems worth reading in SC newspapers on Chronicling America.

To search for yourself, you can go to the Search Newspaper Pages at http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/search/pages/.

The following is an excerpt of a fun article about the origins of Christmas and its peculiar customs, in the Columbia Daily Phoenix, dated December 25, 1868.

Happy holidays everyone!

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Hot off the press! The Anderson Intelligencer and the Charleston Daily News are now on Chronicling America!


We just received word this afternoon that two newspaper titles, the Anderson Intelligencer and the Charleston Daily News,  have been added into Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. To date, 29,178 newspaper images (of the 100,000 total number of images we intend to reach during this grant cycle) have been approved and uploaded by the Library of Congress in Chronicling America. Also, you may be pleased to learn that more Columbia Daily Phoenix content has been added during this upload cycle as well!

To browse these two new titles and to learn more about these newspapers, you may select the links below.

The Anderson intelligencer. (Anderson Court House, S.C.) 1860-1914

The Charleston daily news. (Charleston, S.C.) 1865-1873

Further progress is being made with five newspaper batches (46,000 images) which are currently in the “digitization” pipeline.  We have sent these newspaper batches to our vendor for digitization and we will keep you posted on their progress. In the meantime, happy reading.

The titles from these five upcoming batches will include the following titles:

  • Sumter Watchman
  • Watchman and Southron
  • more Charleston Daily News content
  • more Anderson Intelligencer content
  • Anderson Daily Intelligencer
  • Intelligencer
  • Keowee Courier
  • Orangeburg Times
  • Orangeburg News
  • Orangeburg News and Times
  • Orangeburg Democrat
  • Times and Democrat
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"Our city shall spring from her ashes." A brief history of the Columbia Phoenix.


Craig Keeney, Published Materials Cataloger at the South Caroliniana Library here at USC and one of our Principal Investigators of the SCDNP, has composed several fascinating essays about each of the South Carolina newspapers digitized in Chronicling America.

These essays or “scope notes” may be accessed by a link titled More about this Newspaper, for each newspaper in Chronicling America.

The following is an essay Mr. Keeney wrote on the history of The Columbia Phoenix…

The Columbia Phoenix (1865-78) arose out of the charred remains of Columbia, the capital city of South Carolina, in the aftermath of the Civil War to record its losses and bear witness to its gradual recovery. A triweekly newspaper, the Phoenix first appeared on Tuesday, March 21, 1865, mere weeks after fires had razed a third of the city. It struck a defiant tone, declaring, “Our city shall spring, from her ashes, and our Phoenix, we hope and trust, shall announce the glorious rising! God save the state!” For over ten years, it reflected on the hardships (crop failures, the scarcity of goods and money) and hopes (the return of businesses and railroads, voting rights for African Americans) of the residents of Columbia and neighboring communities in the Midlands region of South Carolina.

Proprietor Julian A. Selby boasted considerable experience in the newspaper business, having formerly owned the Tri-Weekly South Carolinian [LCCN: sn85042531] (also called Tri-weekly Carolinian and South Carolinian). In establishing the Columbia Phoenix, however, he literally started from scratch. In the weeks immediately following the city’s destruction, Selby scoured the state for paper, a press, and printing supplies. He and his assistants fashioned for themselves the things they could not find. He also secured the services of renowned Southern literary critic, novelist, and poet William Gilmore Simms as editor. Living conditions in the capital city were so desperate that, early on, the staff offered to accept food staples such as bacon, eggs, rice, and potatoes as payment in lieu of cash subscriptions. The first ten issues contained a detailed history of the burning of Columbia, which was separately published as Sack and Destruction of the City of Columbia, S.C., in October 1865 (itself edited and republished as A City Laid Waste in 2005). Simms departed after six months, but not before Federal troops had arrested him for criticizing their presence in Columbia. Selby edited and published the Phoenix for much of its existence, ceding editorial control only in its twilight years to Henry S. Farley, publisher of the Columbia-based triweekly paper, the Straight-out Democrat [LCCN: sn92065612].

The Columbia Phoenix changed names several times in the course of its existence. In April 1865, the newspaper split into the Columbia Phoenix, a daily, and the Columbia Tri-weekly Phoenix [LCCN: sn84027005], which was published every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. The daily paper changed its name to Columbia Daily Phoenix in May 1865 and then became the Daily Phoenix in July. In 1866, Selby launched the Columbia Weekly Gleaner, a Home Companion, which appeared every Wednesday. In 1875, the owners of a competing newspaper, the Columbia Daily Register [LCCN: sn83025800], bought the Daily Phoenix. The Tri-weekly Phoenix likely ceased that same year. Only scattered issues exist for the years 1876-78, so it is unclear precisely when and why the Daily Phoenix [LCCN: sn92065700] ceased. The last recorded issue appeared on November 3, 1878.

To browse these newspapers, you may click on the links below.

Columbia Phoenix (Triweekly)

Columbia Phoenix (Daily)

Columbia Daily Phoenix

Daily Phoenix

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Have you checked out the Topics in Chronicling America page yet?

The Library of Congress Newspaper and Current Periodicals Reading Room has compiled a wide range of topics related to 19th and 20th century American History, from newspaper articles that can be found in Chronicling America: American Historic Newspapers. Currently, there are more than 50 topics, ranging from articles on the Baseball World Series (1903-1910) to Ellis Island (1890-1907) and  eclectic topics such as the apparent Ping Pong Craze at the turn of the 20th century.

For instance, take a look at the topic on Butch Cassidy, aka Robert LeRoy Parker, the  infamous outlaw of the West. Important Dates related to Butch Cassidy are provided, as well as Suggested Search Strategies that will help searchers retrieve optimal results. Suggested Search terms, such as Wild Bunch, outlaw, bandit, and robbery are provided, and they offer recommendations on narrowing the Search Date between 1889 and 1910, when results for Butch Cassidy will be most relevant. And finally a sampling of articles about Butch Cassidy have been gathered for easy browsing on this topic.

Here is the current list of topics on the Topics in Chronicling America page. You can find Topics in Chronicling America by going to the Chronicling America homepage, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/. Look for the Topics in Chronicling America link under the Working with Chronicling America heading at the bottom of the page.

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Madame Sosnowski, noteworthy citizen of Columbia, South Carolina

While reading the Columbia Phoenix online in Chronicling America, I ran across a brief article printed on March 28, 1865. The editors of the Phoenix wished to make quite clear that a highly regarded citizen of Columbia had NOT followed the Federal Army as they withdrew their occupation of the city the previous February, as was incorrectly printed in the recent issue of the Augusta Constitutionalist. Intrigued by her name, I began a fruitful search of a noteworthy woman and her history.

click on image to visit Chronicling America

Madame Sophie Sosnowski (nee Wentz) was born in Baden, Germany in 1809 and was the daughter of a “prominent court physician,” Dr. Christian Wentz. In 1833, she emigrated from Europe to America with her Lithuanian husband, Captain Joseph Stanislaus Sosnowski, who served with distinction in the Russian Army, but was compelled to flee the country after participating in the failed Polish Revolution of 1830 against Russia.

The Sosnowskis lived in Erie, Pennsylvania, and after her husband’s death in 1845, Madame Sosnowski moved her family to the various cities of Troy, New York; Macon, Georgia; Charleston, South Carolina; Columbia, South Carolina; and lastly Athens, Georgia. She penned her own eye-witness account of the Burning of Columbia, called “A Thrilling, Faithful & Graphic Description of a Monstrous Crime” which was published in 1924 in the Georgia Historical Quarterly titled the “Burning of Columbia.”

Madame Sosnowski ran a highly respected school for girls in Columbia during the 1850s and 1860s, called the Brahamville Institute, located two miles north of the city. Madame Sosnowski, her daughters, and Captain Thaddeus Strawinski, an ex-officer of the 1830 Polish Army, taught Music, German, and French to young ladies.

click on image to visit Chronicling America

Remarkably, there are several collections of family photographs, ephemera, and correspondence related to Madame Sosnowski at the South Caroliniana Library, the South Carolina Historical Society, and the University of Georgia. It appears that many descendants and relatives of Madame Sosnowski live in South Carolina and Georgia today.

Sosnowski family letters and scrapbook, 1809-1949.

South Caroliniana Library Manuscripts Division

Two volumes (photostatic copies) consisting of volume one, 1809-1949 (memoir, biography and family history) and second volume of correspondence, 1853-1876, related to the career of Madame Sophia Sosnowski and her related Polish-American family lines in South Carolina and Georgia. Persons represented in these two volumes include members of the Sosnowski family of Polish and German descent who settled in South Carolina during the mid-19th century. German-born Sophia Wentz Sosnowski (1809-1899) and her husband Joseph Stanislaus Sosnowski (1800 or 1806-1845), a captain in the Polish army, came to New York via France shortly after their marriage in 1833. Following her husband’s death, Madame Sosnowski moved the family to Columbia, S.C., and opened the South Carolina Female Collegiate Institute at Barhamville. Madame Sosnowski became renowned as a teacher of languages, literature, and vocal music. After the Civil War much of the family resettled in Athens, Ga., where Madame Sosnowski taught at the Lucy Cobb Institute and later operated her own school, known as the Home School. Sophia Augusta Sosnowski married Colonel Frank E. Schaller (1835-1881), who had been stationed in Columbia, S.C., during the Civil War. The new Schaller family also settled in Georgia and maintained close ties with the Sosnowski family. Dr. Julius Christian Sosnowski (1840-1876) married Susan Grace Townsend and resided with her family at Bleak Hall on Edisto Island, S.C.

Papers of the Sosnowski and Schaller Families, 1828-1948.

South Caroliniana Library Manuscripts Division

Chiefly Civil War and family correspondence and business papers including information on professional lives of Sophie Sosnowski and Frank Schaller; including manuscript, 1865, Madame Sophie Sosnowski, recording eye-witness account of W.T. Sherman’s burning of Columbia, S.C.; diary, 1861-1862, kept by Frank Schaller re family and military activities; 2 letters, 27 July 1861 and 28 June 1877, Mississippi and Georgia, re roster of the 22nd Mississippi Infantry, commanded by Col. F[rank] Schaller.

Photographs of Langley-Seabrook-Sosnowski families [picture] : 1869-1960.

South Caroliniana Library Manuscripts Division

Photographs of Madame Sophie Maria Wentz at various ages; Frank Schaller and daughter Ida; Julius C. Sosnowski, M.D. in WWI uniform and later by Holland Studio, Charleston; photographs of miniature of Dorothea Odenheinz Wentz (Mrs. Christian Wentz) and silhouette of great-aunt of Madame Wentz.

Other sources include  the Madame Sophie Sosnowski collection, 1869-1917 at the University of Georgia, Hargrett Manuscripts Library and an informative article about her called “A Polish Family in the South” reprinted from Polish-American Studies (1946) on the Polish-American Historical Association website.

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Sack and Destruction of Columbia

Read William Gilmore Simm’s vivid account of the sack and destruction of Columbia by General Sherman’s army.

Readers will find the commentary on saving the South Caroliniana Library and other buildings on the Horseshoe of particular interest.

To read the whole series on the Sack and Destruction of Columbia in Chronicling America…

Columbia Phoenix March 21, 1865

Columbia Phoenix March 23, 1865

Columbia Phoenix March 25, 1865

Interesting, also, is a small mention of Sherman’s capture of Columbia in the Daily National Republican, a Washington, D.C. paper, March 2, 1865.

By Telegraph, The Destruction of Columbia Confirmed

…and an account in the White Cloud Kansas Chief, February 23, 1865

Glorious from South Carolina!

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